भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-नगा

नगा जनजाति का प्रमुख निवास नगा पहाड़ियों (Naga Hills) का प्रदेश नगालैण्ड है। नगालैण्ड के बाहर पटकोई पहाड़ियों, मणिपुर, मिजोरम, असम और अरुणाचल प्रदेश में भी नगा जाति के लोग मिलते हैं। टोलेमी के अनुसार नगा का अर्थ नंगे (Naked) रहने वाले व्यक्तियों से। डॉ. वेरियर इल्विन का विचार है कि नगा शब्द की उत्पत्ति नॉक या लोग (Nok or people ) से हुई है। नगा लोगों की उत्पत्ति के बारे में विवाद है, परन्तु यह सर्वमान्य है कि इनका सम्बन्ध इण्डो-मंगोलॉयड प्रजाति से है। नगा की उपजातियों में रंगपण, कोन्याक, रेंगमा, सेमा, अंगामी, लोहता, फोग, , सन्थम, थिम्स्तसुंगर, कचा, काबुई, तेखुल, काल्पोकेंगु आदि प्रमुख हैं। इनमें आओ सबसे उच्च वर्ग माना जाता है।

 

निवास क्षेत्र- नगा जाति नगालैण्ड में कोहिमा, मोकोकयुंग और तुएनसाँग जिलों तथा मणिपुर राज्य में पायी जाती है। नगा पर्वतों पर इनका सबसे अधिक जमाव पाया जाता हैं।

 

वातावरण की दशाएँ– सम्पूर्ण नगा क्षेत्र पहाड़ी है (जिसकी औसत ऊँचाई 2,000 मीटर है) नगा पहाड़ियाँ दक्षिण-पश्चिम, उत्तर-पूर्व में फैली हुई हैं। इनसे अनेक नदियाँ निकल कर ब्रह्मपुत्र में मिलती हैं। यहाँ वर्षा का औसत 200 से 250 सेण्टीमीटर का है। अधिक वर्षा के कारण यहाँ पर सघन वन क्षेत्र पाए जाते हैं, जिनमें साल, टीक, बाँस, बेंत, जैकफूट, आम, बलूत और चीड़ के वृक्ष पाए जाते हैं। निचले भागों में आचर्ड, काई, अनेक प्रकार की लताएँ और रोडोडेनडस के पौधे अधिकता से पाए जाते हैं। इन वनों में अनेक प्रकार के जंगली फल, केले, आम, सुपारी, अंजीर, नारंगी, रैस्पवरी, स्ट्रॉबैरी फल भी बहुतायत से मिलते हैं।

 

जीव-जन्तु– वनों में जंगली हाथी, जंगली भैसे, सूअर, , तेंदुए, चीते, मिथुन वैल, काला गिबन एवं अनेक प्रकार के वन्दर, हिरण, , भेड़िये और लकड़बग्घे पाए जाते हैं। अनेक प्रकार के चूहे, गिलहरियाँ, हार्नबिल चिड़ियाँ, चीलें, गिद्ध, साँप, आदि भी प्रचुरता से मिलते हैं। यहाँ के निवासी इनमें से अधिकांश का शिकार करते हैं।

 

शारीरिक गठन– इनकी चमड़ी का रंग हल्के थोडा पीले से गहरा भूरा, चेहरा ललाई , बाल काले, धुंघराले, सीधे तथा लहरदार, आँखें गहरी भूरी, गाल की उभरी हुई, साधारणतः मोटे और पतले, सिर चौड़े से मध्यम आकार का, नाक चौड़ी से संकरी, नथुने चौड़े, शरीर का गठन सुन्दर तथा कद मध्यम से थोडा लम्बा होता है।

 

बस्तियाँ और घर– नगा लोग अपने गाँव पहाड़ों के ऊपर और ढालों पर बनाते हैं। गाँव की औसत जनसंख्या 650 होती है। प्रत्येक गाँव में 200 के लगभग मकान या झोपड़ियाँ होती हैं, जिनकी स्थिति सुविधानुसार रखी जाती है। प्रत्येक गाँव में एक या अधिक अविवाहितों के शयनागार या मोरंग होते हैं। यह मरंग एक प्रकार के क्लब-घर होते हैं जिनमें गांव के अविवाहित युवक रहते हैं और समय-समय पर बाहरी आक्रमणों के प्रति गाँव के लोगों को ढोल बजाकर सूचित करते रहते हैं।

गाँव में ही एक बड़े वृक्ष के नीचे कुछ गोलमटोल पत्थर रखे जाते हैं। यह शान्ति एवं समृद्धि के प्रतीक देवता माने जाते हैं।

 

गाँव एवं मकान प्रायः दो बातों को ध्यान में रखकर बनाए जाते हैं-

 

घर और गाँव के निकट खेती योग्य भूमि उपलब्ध हो

 निकट ही जल की स्थायी प्राप्ति का स्रोत हो।

प्रायः कृषि योग्य भूमि से आकर्षित होकर घर बना लिए जाते हैं और जल दूरी से भी लाना पड़ता है। शुष्क ऋतु में ये लोग नदियों की घाटियों में रहते हैं।

 

अधिकांश मकान दो कमरे वाले मध्यम आकार के अथवा छत वाले होते हैं। जिनमें आगे बड़ा पीछे छोटा द्वार होता है। मकान के लिए लकड़ी, बाँस, टहनियाँ व मिट्टी का प्रयोग एवं छत पर लठ्ठीं, बाँसों एवं घास का उपयोग होता है।

 

वस्त्राभूषण– विभिन्न वर्गों के नगाओं में विभिन्न प्रकार के वस्त्र पहने जाते हैं। भीतरी भागों में आज भी नगा लोग प्राय: नंगे ही रहते हैं। 6-7 वर्ष तक के लड़के तो नंगे ही रहते हैं। छोटी लड़कियाँ सूती लंगोटी किस्म का कपड़ा लपेट लेती हैं। सामान्यतः नगा लोग कम वस्त्र पहनते हैं। आओ पुरुष लगभग 1.20 मीटर लम्वा और 25 सेण्टीमीटर चौड़ा सफेद या नीले रंग का एक कपड़ा कमर पर लटका लेते हैं। स्त्रियाँ 1 मीटर से 1½  मीटर लम्बा तथा ½ से ¾ मीटर चौड़ा एक घाघरा सा पहनती हैं। शरीर के ऊपरी भाग को एक अन्य वस्त्र द्वारा बगल तक ढका रखा जाता है। पुरुष सिर पर रीछ की खाल की टोपियाँ, बकरियों के बाल के टोपे अथवा हार्नबिल के पंख, हाथी दाँत और पीतल के भुजबन्द पहनते हैं। स्त्रियाँ पीतल के गहने, कौड़ियों की मालाएँ तथा बेंत की करधनी और चूड़ियाँ पहनती हैं तथा शरीर पर गोदना गुदवाती हैं।

 

भोजन– नगाओं का मुख्य भोजन चावल, मछलियाँ, सब्जी हैं। गाय, भैस, मेढक और कछुए का माँस बड़ा स्वादिष्ट माना जाता है। चावल की बनी शराब का खूब उपयोग किया जाता है।

 

व्यवसाय– आओ नगाओं का मुख्य व्यवसाय खेती करना है। पहले यहाँ खेती झूम प्रणाली द्वारा की जाती थी। अब प्रायः स्थायी खेती की जाती है। पहाड़ी ढालों पर भी सीढ़ी के आकार के खेतों में कृषि की जाती है। खेत छोटे और नियमित रूप से बोए जाते हैं। धान, कपास, मक्का, मिर्च, अदरक, तिल, कद्दू. ककड़ी, शकरकन्द, आलू, तम्बाकू, पान, लहसुन, सुपारी और नारंगियाँ पैदा की जाती हैं। सूअर, बकरियाँ तथा मुर्गियाँ भी पाली जाती हैं, कृषि व पशुपालन के साथसाथ जंगली पशुओं का शिकार, विविध शिल्पों से कुटीर उद्योग, (लुहारी, सुथारी, जुलाहे का काम) एवं बाँस, मिट्टी व खाल की वस्तुएँ बनाना मुख्य है।

सामाजिक व्यवस्था– परिवार सामाजिक इकाई का सबसे छोटा रूप होता है, जिसमें स्त्री-पुरुष एवं उनके अविवाहित बच्चे सम्मिलित होते हैं। विवाह होते ही प्रत्येक लड़का अलग हो जाता है, अतः परिवार की जाता है।

धर्म आदि– आओ नगाओं का विश्वास है कि संसार में अनेक आत्माएँ होती हैं जो सदा बुरे कर्म ही करती हैं। ये आत्माएँ मागों पर, खेतों में विचरण करती हैं और पेड़ों, नदियों, पहाड़ियों पर भूतप्रेतों के रूप में निवास करती हैं। इन्हीं के कारण वाढ़े, दुर्भिक्ष और तूफान आते हैं, फसलें नष्ट होती हैं, बीमारियाँ आती हैं तथा स्त्रियों में बाँझपन आता है। इन्हीं से पशु मर जाते हैं और शिकार की कमी हो जाती है। अतः ऐसी आत्माओं की तुष्टि के लिए ये मुर्गियाँ, सूअर, कुते, आदि की बलि देते हैं तथा माँस, मदिरा, चावल और सूखी हुई मछलियाँ भेंट चढ़ाते हैं।

नगाओं द्वारा खोपड़ी का शिकार- आरम्भ से ही नगा युद्धप्रिय जाति रही है, इनका सारा जीवन ही युद्ध पर आधारित है। मार डालना या मारा जाना जीवन की सामान्य घटना मानी जाती है। अनेक भागों में मनुष्य के सिर काटने की प्रथा प्रचलित रही है। अब यह प्रथा समाप्त हो गई है

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