भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-टोडा Todas

टोडा Todas

दक्षिणी भारत के पश्चिमी घाट, इलाइची की पहाड़ियों और नीलगिरि की पहाड़ियों से घिरे क्षेत्र में अनेक जनजातियाँ पायी जाती हैं : बड़गा, कोटा, कुरुम्बा, इरुला और टोडा। इनमें ऐतिहासिक दृष्टि से टोडा, जनजाति का विशेष महत्व है, क्योंकि यह भैंस पालने वाले आदर्श चरवाहे और प्रथा मानने वाली जनजाति है। इस जनजाति का परम्परागत निवास क्षेत्र नीलगिरि की पहाड़ियाँ माना जाता है।

वातावरण- यह सारा क्षेत्र धरातल की दृष्टि से ऊबड़खाबड़ है जिसका क्षेत्रफल लगभग 1,500 वर्ग किलोमीटर है और जो समुद्र तल से 1,000 से 1,600 मीटर तक ऊँचा है। इस क्षेत्र में तापमान सर्दियों 16° व गर्मियों में 28° सेण्टीग्रेड के बीच रहता है तथा वार्षिक वर्षा 160 सेण्टीमीटर तक हो जाती है, अतः यह क्षेत्र वनाच्छादित है, किन्तु पूर्वी ढाल वृष्टि छाया में पड़ते हैं, अतः यहाँ केवल मुलायम घास पैदा होती है। वनों में श्वेत सीडर, सेटीनवुड, आयरनवुड, इबोनी, सिल्वर ओक, यूकेलिप्टस के वृक्ष अधिकता से मिलते हैं। इन वनों में अनेक प्रकार के हिरण, साँभर, तेंदुए, हाथी, चीते, एण्टीलोप, सूअर, नील गाय, इवैक्स और जंगली कुते मिलते हैं। ढालों पर उत्तम घास वर्ष भर उगती है, अतः पशुपालन के लिए आदर्श परिस्थितियाँ मिलती हैं, प्राकृतिक वातावरण का टोडा लोगों के आर्थिक जीवन पर गहरा प्रभाव पड़ता है।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-नगा

शारीरिक गठन- इनकी चमड़ी का रंग हल्का अथवा भूरा, कद लम्बा, सिर लम्बा, नाक संकरी, पतली और लम्वी, बड़ी भूरी आँखें, भरे हुए होंठ, सुगठित शरीर, काले लहरदार बाल, शरीर पर और दाढ़ी पर बाल तथा चेहरा सुन्दर और आकर्षक होता है।

बस्तियाँ और घर- टोडा लोगों के अधिवास मण्ड कहलाते हैं। सामान्यतः अधिवास उन स्थानों पर बनाए जाते हैं, जहाँ का दृश्य आह्लादकारी हो अथवा जहाँ से अन्य सुन्दर दृश्य दिखायी पड़ते हों, जो कुछ ऊँचाई पर हों तथा वन और नदी-नाले के किनारे हों तथा जहाँ स्थानीय घास अधिकता से पायी जाती हो। टोडा गाँव छोटे होते हैं। साधारणतः एक गाँव में 8 और 10 झोपड़ियाँ होती हैं। इनके निर्माण में बाँस, खजूर के वृक्षों और घास का उपयोग किया जाता है। मकान अर्द्धगुम्बदाकार होते हैं। घरों की दीवारें वॉस और खजूर की पत्तियों से बनायी जाती हैं तथा छप्पर बाँस और घास से छाए जाते हैं।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-संथाल

 

परिवार के रहने के लिए बनी झोपड़ी से कुछ दूर अलग एक झोपड़ी होती है जिसे पवित्र दुग्ध मन्दिर कहा जाता है। इसके दो भाग होते हैं, एक में दूध, मक्खन अथवा घी रखा जाता है तथा दूसरे में दुग्ध मन्दिर की देखभाल करने वाला व्यक्ति रहता है जिसे पलोल कहते हैं। यही व्यक्ति दूध रखने उठाने, मक्खन, घी निकालने, आदि का काम करता है।

भोजन- टोडा लोग विशुद्ध शाकाहारी होते हैं। इनके भोजन में दुग्ध की वस्तुओं (घी, मक्खन, छाछ) की अधिकता होती हैTकेवल उत्सवों को छोड़कर (जो वर्ष में केवल 3 या 4 ही होते हैं) जब भैसों की बलि दी जाती है, तभी माँस, मछली, आदि खाते हैं। बड़गा प्रजाति से प्राप्त किया गया चावल दूध में उबाल कर अथवा चावल गुड़ के जल में उबालकर, कढ़ी अथवा के बनाए गए झोल के साथ खाते हैं। अव दालों का भी प्रयोग किया जाने लगा है। वनों से प्राप्त काराली, थिनई, शहद, फल  और जंगली साग-सब्जियों का भी उपयोग किया जाता है। ये चाय और कहवा भी पीते हैं।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-थारू

वस्त्राभूषण- टोडा जाति के स्त्री और पुरुष एक लम्वा ढीला-ढाला सूती चोगा कंधे पर डाले रहते हैं जो गर्दन से लेकर पैर तक शरीर को लेता है। इसके अन्दर धोती पहनते हैं। चोगा लाल, काली या नीली धारियों वाला होता है। सिर प्रायः नंगा ही रहता है। आजकल युवा वर्ग के लोग कमीज, कुर्ता तथा धोती पहनने लगे हैं और स्त्रियाँ साड़ियाँ और ब्लाउज। अन्धविश्वास के कारण ये ऊनी वस्त्रों का प्रयोग नहीं करते, किन्तु कम्बल ओढ़ लेते हैं।

स्त्रियाँ गोदने गुदवाने की बड़ी शौकीन होती हैं। ये गोदने ठोड़ी, ऊपरी बाँहीं, वदन के दोनों ओर, छातियों के ऊपर और गर्दन के नीचे गुदाए जाते हैं। गोदने वृत्त या बिन्दुओं के रूप में होते हैं। स्त्रियाँ चाँदी या कौड़ियों के साधारण आभूषण (भुजबन्द, हार, करधनी, बाली, आदि) नाक और गले में पहनती हैं।

टोडा लोगों का जीवन, बचपन से बुढ़ापे तक पशुपालन और पशु चराने में ही समाप्त होता है। ये आदर्श भैसपालक कहे जाते हैं। भैसों की देखभाल करना, दूध दुहना, बिलोना, मक्खन निकालना और उसे सुरक्षित रखने का काम पुरुषों द्वारा ही किया जाता है। दूध दुहने और बिलोने का कार्य एक प्रातःकाल और दूसरा दोपहर में किया जाता है। दूध को बाँस के बने बर्तनों में रखा जाता है। प्रत्येक घर में 8 से 12 भैसें रखी जाती हैं जिनकी नस्ल अच्छी होती है। गायों के वैयक्तिक नाम रखते हैं तथा उनकी नस्ल याद रखी जाती है। टोडा लोग दो प्रकार की भैसें रखते हैं, एक वे जिन्हें वे पवित्र मानते हैं और जो केवल पलोल द्वारा दुग्ध मन्दिर में दुही जाती हैं और दूसरी साधारण भैस जो परिवार के सदस्य द्वारा घर पर दुही जाती हैं।

सामाजिक व्यवस्था- टोडा परिवार बहुपति विवाही परिवार होता है। परिवार में सभी भाई, उनकी स्त्रियाँ, उनकी पुत्रियाँ (निजी एवं सामूहिक), अविवाहित लड़के और लड़कियाँ होते हैं। परिवार में स्त्री का स्थान पुरुष से नीचा होता है। अतः राजनीतिक, धार्मिक उत्सवों, आदि में और दुग्ध व्यवसाय से सम्बन्धित सभी क्रियाओं में भाग लेना उनके लिए वर्जित है। वे घरेलू कार्य ही कर सकती हैं।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-भोटिया या भूटिया 

परिवार की सत्ता या अधिकार बड़े भाई के हाथ में रहता है। सम्पति पर भी सम्मिलित रूप से ही स्वामित्व होता है। केवल पहनने के कपड़े, गहने तथा बर्तनों पर निजी अधिकार हो सकता है. अन्यथा सारी सम्पति सम्मिलित परिवार की होती है। सम्पति का बंटवारा पितृसत्तात्मक होता है।

टोडा लोगों में परम्परागत विवाह का ढंग बहुपति प्रथा है, यद्यपि एक पत्नी तथा बहुपत्नी प्रथा भी असामान्य नहीं है। बहुपति प्रथा में सभी भाइयों की एक ही पत्नी होती है।

धार्मिक विश्वास- टोडा लोग आदिवासी धर्म को मानते हैं, जिसमें अनेक आत्माओं, देवीदेवताओं में विश्वास किया जाता है। इनकी संख्या 10 से 18 तक होती है। दो मुख्य देवी-देवता क्रमशः तैकिर जी और ओन हैं। तैकिर जी सबसे बड़ी देवी है, जो पृथ्वी पर निवास करने वाली है, जीवित प्राणियों पर राज्य करती है, जबकि जो उसका भाई है वह मृतकों के संसार पर राज्य करता है। इन दो के अतिरिक्त अनेक देवताओं का सम्बन्ध नदियों से, पहाड़ों से होता है। दुग्ध घरों को ये पवित्र मानते हैं, अतः एक देवता दुग्ध घर का भी होता है। दुग्ध घर की देखभाल करने वाले को डेयरी पुजारी कहा जाता है।

किसी दुर्भाग्य का कारण ये जादू या पाप को मानते हैं। अतः दुर्भाग्य, बीमारी, मृत्यु, दुग्ध घर में आग लग जाने, भैसों में दूध सूख जाने, आदि के लिए देवता की पूजा-अर्चना की जाती है

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  129. Крупный учебный и научно-исследовательский центр Республики Беларусь. Высшее образование в сфере гуманитарных и естественных наук на 12 факультетах по 35 специальностям первой ступени образования и 22 специальностям второй, 69 специализациям.

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