भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-संथाल Santhals

संथाल Santhals

निवासक्षेत्र- संथाल लोगों का निवास क्षेत्र बड़ा व्यापक है। यह विहार, झारखण्ड, उड़ीसा और पश्चिम बंगाल में फैला है। झारखण्ड में ही इनका सबसे अधिक जमाव पाया जाता है, विशेषतः संथाल परगना में छोटा नागपुर पठार का पूर्वी छोर संथाल परगना का सबसे प्रमुख क्षेत्र है। पश्चिम बंगाल में वीरभूम, बाँकुड़ा, माल्दा, मेदिनीपुर और चौबीस परगना जिलों तथा उड़ीसा में मयूरभंज में भी पाए जाते हैं।

वातावरण सम्बन्धी परिस्थितियाँ- संथाल क्षेत्र 330 मीटर से 660 मीटर ऊँचे हैं, जो पहाड़ियों और सघन वनों से ढके हैं। इनके बीच में अनेक नदियाँ और नाले बहते हैं। शीतकालीन तापमान 24″ सेण्टीग्रेड से ग्रीष्मकालीन तापमान सेण्टीग्रेड तक रहते हैं। वर्षा का औसत 150 सेण्टीमीटर तक होता है। वर्षा अधिकतर जुलाई में होती है। वनों में साल, महुआ, कदम, पीपल, पलास और कुसुम के वृक्ष बहुतायत से मिलते हैं। जंगली जीवों में सुअर, हिरण, बतखें, गीदड़, तेंदुए और चीते पाए जाते हैं।

शारीरिक गठन- शारीरिक दृष्टि से ये छोटे से मध्यम कद के होते हैं। इनका रंग गहरे से भूरा, आँखों की पुतलियाँ सामान्यतः सीघी एवं मध्यम आकार और काले रंग की, ललाट चौड़ा, बाल काले, सीधे और कभीकभी धुंघराले, शरीर पर कम बाल और दाढ़ी मूछों का अभाव, सिर लम्बा तथा नाक कुछ बैठी हुई, चेहरा बड़ा तथा मोटे होते हैं।

वस्त्राभूषण- संथाल पुरुष सामान्यत्ः बहुत कम वस्त्र पहनते हैं। गुप्तांगों को ढकने के लिए लगभग 1.25 मीटर लम्बी लंगोट का उपयोग किया जाता है, जिसे कोपनी (Kopni) कहते हैं। संथाल स्त्रियाँ धोतियाँ और चोलियाँ या ब्लाउज पहनती हैं। इनके बाल लम्बे और पीछे की ओर गाँठ लगाकर बाँधे जाते हैं। स्त्री-पुरुष दोनों ही अपने शरीर को सजाने में रुचि रखते हैं। फूल-पत्तियों, पक्षियों के पंख, गाय की पूंछ के बाल का उपयोग इस कार्य के लिए अधिक किया जाता है। स्त्रियाँ पीतल या चाँदी की हंसली, कड़े, बाजूबन्द, झुमके, अंगूठियों तथा कमर में करधनी का उपयोग करती हैं स्त्रियाँ और लड़कियाँ गोदने भी गुदवाती हैं। बस्तियाँ और घर-संथाल गाँव सामान्यतः छोटे आकार के होते हैं जिसमें एक ही गोत्र या वंश के 10 से 35 परिवार रहते हैं। बस्तियाँ सड़क के दोनों ओर रेखांकित रूप से होती हैं, जिनके पास लम्बे वृक्षों की कतार होती है। घर प्राय: झोपड़ियों का रूप लिए होते हैं। कमरे का दरवाजा एक ही होता है, खिड़कियाँ बिल्कुल नहीं होतीं। झोपड़ी साल के लट्टों, बाँस की खपच्चियों तथा साल की पतियाँ गोबर से लिपी होती हैं। फर्श कच्चा तथा छत पतियों से छायी होती है। दीवारों के बाहर अनेक प्रकार की रंगीन मिट्टियों और राख के माण्डने मॉडे जाते हैं। प्रत्येक गाँव के मुखिया के घर के सामने गाँव के संस्थापक का स्थान होता है, जिसे माँझी स्थान कहते हैं, इसमें कुछ अनगढ़ पत्थर रखे होते हैं जिसमें संस्थापक की आत्मा का निवास करना माना जाता है। अनेक अवसरों पर गाँव के लोग पुरोहित या प्रधान के नेतृत्व में यहाँ पूजा करने आते हैं।

संथालों के घरों में प्रायः लकड़ी, पीतल तथा मिट्टी के बर्तन, कुछ डलियाँ, झाडू, वैठने को लकड़ी का तख्ता, धान कूटने की मशीन और खाना पकाने के बर्तन, आदि होते हैं। शिकार अथवा आक्रमण के लिए तीरकमान, कुल्हाड़ी, फन्दे या जाल, भाले और ढाल, आदि होते हैं। ढोल, तुरही, बाँसुरी प्रमुख वाद्ययन्त्र होते हैं। खेती के लिए हल, जूड़ा, पट्टा, कुदाल, खुरपी, दाँतली तथा धान कूटने के लिए मूसल और ओखली, धेंकी, आदि व्यवहार में लायी जाती हैं

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-थारू

व्यवसाय- खेती करना इनका प्रमुख उद्योग है। खेती के लिए तीन प्रकार की भूमि का उपयोग किया जाता है : (1) झोपड़ी के पीछे की भूमि जिसमें मोटे अनाज, मक्का, तिल, फलियाँ, चारा तथा अनेक प्रकार की सब्जियाँ पैदा की जाती हैं। (2) ऊँची, भूमि जो घरों से अधिक दूर नहीं होती और जिसमें मोटे अनाज, कपास, दालें, आदि पैदा की जाती हैं। (3) पहाड़ी ढालों वाली भूमि जिस पर ऊँचाई के अनुसार खेती की जाती है।

खेती के अतिरिक्त संथाल लोग मिलने पर किसी भी पशु का शिकार करते हैं, विशेषतः जंगली सूअर के शिकार सामान्यतः टोलियों में आयोजित किए जाते हैं। शिकार के अतिरिक्त जाल, फन्दे, तीरों की सहायता से नदियों, पोखरों और तालाबों में मछलियाँ भी पकड़ी जाती हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त वनों से अनेक प्रकार की वस्तुएँ छालें, जड़ें, गाँठे, फल, कोपलें, आदि इकट्टे किए जाते हैं जिनका उपयोग कर, घरेलू उपयोग की वस्तुएँ प्राप्त की जाती हैं, महुआ और साल का महत्व अधिक है। संथाल लोग बैल, मुर्गे, सूअर, बकरियाँ, गाय, भेड़ और कबूतर भी खाते हैं। इनका मुख्य भोजन उबला हुआ चावल और चावल की बनी शराब (हाँडी या हंडिया) होता है। ये तम्बाकू खाते हैं और हुक्का भी पीते हैं।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-भोटिया या भूटिया 

सामाजिक व्यवस्था- संथाल लोगों में संयुक्त परिवार प्रणाली प्रचलित है। इनके परिवार पितृसत्तात्मक होते हैं। अधिकांशतः एक ही घर में माता-पिता, अवयस्क सन्तानें तथा विवाहित पुत्रों की पलियाँ और बच्चे रहते हैं। परिवार का सबसे बड़ा व्यक्ति ही परिवार का मुखिया होता है। परिवार के सभी सदस्य रूप से उत्पादन कार्य करते हैं। सारी आय एक ही कोष में एकत्रित की जाती है और परिवार के मुखिया के निर्देशानुसार उसे खर्च किया जाता है। बड़ा पुत्र ही घर का मुखिया होता है।

संथाल एक-विवाह करते हैं, किन्तु जब पत्नी से सन्तान न हो तो बहुपत्नी भी रख लेते हैं। ये पूर्णतः बहिर्विवाही होते हैं, क्योंकि कोई भी व्यक्ति अपने गोत्र के अन्तर्गत विवाह नहीं कर सकता। संथाली गाँवों में एक ही उपगोत्र के लोग रहते हैं, अतः एक गाँव के सदस्यों में विवाह अनुचित माने जाते हैं। संथालों में विवाह के पूर्व लैंगिक सम्बन्धों पर विशेष प्रतिबन्ध नहीं होता, लेकिन यदि कोई लड़की गर्भवती हो जाती है। तो उस व्यक्ति को उस लड़की से विवाह करना पड़ता है। बड़े भाई की मृत्यु के पश्चात् छोटा भाई उसकी विधवा से विवाह कर सकता है।

धार्मिक विश्वास- संथाल लोग हिन्दुओं के देवी देवताओं (शिव, दुर्गा, आदि) को मानने लगे हैं। संथाली धर्म में अनेक देवी-देवताओं और आत्माओं का पूजन किया जाता है। सबसे बड़ा देवता जिसने सृष्टि की रचना की है, ठाकुर माना जाता है। यही देवता जीवन, वर्षा, फसलों और अन्य आवश्यक बातों पर नियन्त्रण रखता है।

भारत की प्रमुख जनजातियाँ :-नगा

संथाल देवताओं के प्रकोप से बहुत डरते हैं, अतः उन्हें प्रसन्न रखने के लिए जंगलों में या मन्दिरों में बलिदान कर देवता की पूजा करते हैं।

इनके अतिरिक्त भूत-प्रेतों चुडैल और आत्माओं में भी संथालों का बड़ा विश्वास होता है। जादू-टोने में भी यह विश्वास करते हैं। इसके लिए ओझा का उपयोग किया जाता है। संथाल स्त्रियाँ जो जादूगरनी होती हैं, उन्हें ओझा द्वारा बड़ा कष्ट दिया जाता है। झाड़-फूंक द्वारा या शारीरिक यातनाओं द्वारा उन्हें सुधारने का प्रयास किया जाता है। ओझा लोग मन्त्रों द्वारा रोगों का भी इलाज करते हैं। जड़ी-बूटियों का प्रयोग करने में जो ओझा प्रवीण होते हैं उन्हें अधिक सम्मान मिलता है।

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