स्किनर का क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत |Operant Conditioning Theory (R-S Theory) in Hindi

क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत Operant Conditioning Theory (R-S Theory) जिसके प्रतिपादक B.F Skinner हैं। इसलिए इस सिद्धांत को Skinner R-S Theory of Learning के नाम से भी जाना जाता हैं। स्किनर ने अपने इस परीक्षण की शुरुआत 1938 में की। 

स्किनर ने अपना यह परीक्षण चूहे और कबूतर पर किया। स्किनर के कबूतर पर किया गया परीक्षण अत्यधिक प्रसिद्ध हैं। स्किनर थार्नडाइक के उद्दीपन-अनुक्रिया सिद्धांत (S-R Theory) की भांति उद्दीपन को अनुक्रिया हेतु आवश्यक नही मानते। B.F Skinner उद्दीपन के स्थान पर अनुक्रिया को महत्वपूर्ण स्थान देते हैं और उसे ही अधिगम के लिए आवश्यक मानते हैं।

स्किनर का यह क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत (Operant Conditioning Theory) R-S Theory प्रत्येक शिक्षक संबंधी परीक्षाओं में पूछा जाता हैं। इस प्रकरण से संबंधित सम्पूर्ण जानकारी प्राप्त करने हेतु पोस्ट को अंत तक पढ़े। स्किनर के इस क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत को मनोविज्ञान में अधिगम के सिद्धांत (Theory of Learning) के नाम से भी जाना जाता हैं। 

क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत |Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning (R-S Theory) in Hindi

Operant Conditioning Theory (R-S Theory) hindi

बी.एफ स्किनर द्वारा किया गया, प्रथम परीक्षण जो कि उन्होंने 1938 में एक चूहे पर किया। जिसमें उन्होंने एक चूहे को एक बॉक्स में रख दिया। उस बॉक्स की बनावट कुछ इस प्रकार की थी कि उसमें स्किनर ने एक बटन का निर्माण कराया था और उस बॉक्स में ऊपर पर एक गोल होल था। जब उस बटन को कोई दबाता था तो उस गोल  होल से चूहे के भोजन के रूप में कुछ दाने निकलते थे। 

स्किनर ने एक दिन उस बॉक्स में एक चूहे को रख दिया। जिसके अंदर जाकर चूहा अपनी स्वाभाविक क्रिया करने लगा, अर्थात वह बॉक्स के चारो ओर खुदने लगा। जिस कारण उसका अंग उस बॉक्स में लगे बटन पर पड़ गया और उस गोल होल से उसे दाने मिल गए। इस परीक्षण के आधार पर स्किनर ने उद्दीपन की जगह अनुक्रिया को उच्च स्थान दिया। स्किनर उस दाने को उद्दीपन के तौर पर न लेकर उसे पुनर्बलन के दृष्टिकोण से देखा।

स्किनर ने अपना द्वितीय परीक्षण 1943 में एक कबूतर पर किया। जो चूहे पर किये गए परीक्षण से अधिक प्रसिद्ध हैं। इस परिक्षण में उन्होंने एक ऐसे बॉक्स का निर्माण करवाया। जो चूहे पर किये गए बॉक्स के समान था, परंतु इस बॉक्स में एक होल अधिक था। जिसमें से प्रकाश निकलता था और कबूतर का मार्ग-दर्शन करता था। 

इस परीक्षण में भी कबूतर अपनी स्वभाविक क्रिया करता  था,अर्थात कबूतर जगह जगह चोंच मारता था। उस बॉक्स में जब भी प्रकाश की किरण पड़ती थी तो वह कबूतर घूम-घूम कर जगह-जगह चोंच मारता था। जिस कारण उसकी चोंच उस लगाए गए बटन में लगी और उसे दाने की प्राप्ति हुई। उसने यही परीक्षण कबूतर में बार-बार किया और देखा कि कबूतर अब कम समय मे ही उस बटन का चयन कर उसमें चोंच मारकर भोजन प्राप्त कर लेता था।

इस प्रकार स्किनर ने अपने समस्त परीक्षणों के माध्यम से यह दर्शाने का कार्य किया कि छात्र के अधिगम हेतु जरूरी नही की उद्दीपन की ही आवश्यकता पड़े। छात्र अपनी स्वाभाविक क्रिया कर एवं पुनर्बलन की प्राप्ति कर भी अधिगम कर सकते हैं और स्किनर द्वारा किये गए इन परीक्षणों के आधार पर ही स्किनर ने अपने अधिगम सिद्धांत (theory of learning) प्रस्तुत किये।

स्किनर के क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत (Operant Conditioning Theory) को अन्य नामो से भी जाना जाता हैं जो इस प्रकार हैं – 

● सक्रिय अनुबंधन का सिद्धांत

● अभिक्रमित अनुदेशन का सिद्धान्त

● नैमित्तिक अनुबंधन का सिद्धान्त

● कार्यात्मक प्रतिबद्धता का सिद्धान्त

क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धांत की विशेषता |Characteristics of Operant Conditioning Theory of learning (R-S Theory)

1. स्किनर अधिगम हेतु उद्दीपन को आवश्यक न मानकर क्रिया और पुनर्बलन को महत्व देते हैं। 

2. स्किनर के अनुसार छात्रों को पुनर्बलन देकर उनसे उचित अनुक्रिया करवायी जा सकती हैं। जो अधिगम प्रकिया में सहायक सिद्ध होगी। 

3. इस सिद्धान्त के अनुसार छात्र सदैव अनुक्रिया और पुनर्बलन के माध्यम से ज्ञान को अर्जित करते हैं। 

4. इस सिद्धांत के अनुसार जब छात्र स्वभाव से गलत अनुक्रिया करें तो उन्हें नकारात्मक पुनर्बलन देना चाहिए। जिससे वह उचित मार्ग में प्रशस्त हो सकें।

5. यही छात्र अधिगम के मार्ग पर क्रिया करें तो उसे उसी समय सकारात्मक पुनर्बलन देना चाहिए। जिससे वह अधिगम करने हेतु उत्सुक एवं तत्पर रहें। 

शिक्षा में क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धान्त की उपयोगिता |Importance of Operant Conditioning Theory in Education

स्किनर का क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धान्त (R-S Theory) शिक्षण-अधिगम प्रक्रिया का एक महत्वपूर्ण भाग हैं। वर्तमान शिक्षण-प्रक्रिया को प्रभावशाली बनाने हेतु स्किनर के इस अधिगम सिद्धान्त का उपयोग शिक्षा में निरंतर किया जा रहा हैं। छात्रों की उचित अनुक्रिया पर प्रत्येक शिक्षक पुनर्बलन के रूप में कक्षा में उस छात्र की सराहना करता हैं। जिससे उन्हें ऐसे ही आगे बढ़ते रहने की प्रेरणा एवं शक्ति प्राप्त होती हैं। 

स्किनर का यह सिध्दांत छात्रों का कुशल संज्ञानात्मक विकास करता हैं। जो उन्हें भविष्य में उचित मार्ग की ओर ले जाता हैं। यह सिद्धांत छात्रों को अभ्यास एवं क्रिया के मार्ग की ओर प्रेरित करता हैं। जिससे वह स्वयं करके सिखने की ओर अग्रसर होते हैं।

निष्कर्ष |Conclusion

स्किनर का क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धान्त (Skinner R-S Theory of learning) उद्दीपन के स्थान पर अनुक्रिया और पुनर्बलन को महत्व देता हैं और अपने किये समस्त परीक्षणों के माध्यम से स्वभाविक क्रिया की सहायता से अधिगम करने पर बल देता हैं। 

दोस्तों आज आपने इस पोस्ट के माध्यम से स्किनर के क्रिया प्रसूत अनुबंधन सिद्धान्त (Skinner R-S Theory in Hindi) और अधिगम के सिद्धांत (Theory of Learning in Hindi) के संदर्भ में जाना। अगर आपको हमारी यह पोस्ट पसंद आई हो तो इसे अपने अन्य मित्रों के साथ भी अवश्य शेयर करें।

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    嘿,539彩券可不是昨天才有的新鮮事,它在台灣已經陪伴了我們好多年了。簡單的玩法,小小的投注,卻有著不小的期待,難怪它這麼受歡迎。

    ### 539開獎,是場視覺盛宴!

    每次”539開獎”,都像是一場小型的節目。專業的主持人、明亮的燈光,還有那台專業的抽獎機器,每次都帶給我們不小的刺激。

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    ### 539開獎,那刺激的感覺!

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    ### 最後說兩句

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