मैस्लो सिद्धांत (5 steps of Maslow Theory in Hindi)

मैस्लो सिद्धांत Maslow Theory में मैस्लो ने अपने विचारों का प्रतिपादन किया है जिसे Maslow need theory के नाम से भी जाना जाता है उन्होंने 1943 में एक पत्रिका A theory of human motivation के माध्यम से और इस पत्रिका के तत्पश्चात अपनी प्रसिद्ध पुस्तक motivation and personality में मनुष्य की क्रमबद्ध आवश्यकताओं के संबंध में लिखा। इसे मनोविज्ञान में अभिप्रेरणा का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण सिद्धांत के रूप में जाना जाता है तथा मैस्लो के इस सिद्धान्त को आवश्यकता पदानुक्रम सिद्धांत (Need Hierarchy Model) के नाम से भी जाना जाता हैं।

यहाँ इन सभी आवश्यकताओं को क्रमबद्ध इसलिए कहा जा रहा है क्योंकि इनकी पूर्ति क्रमबद्ध तरीके से ही हो सकती है अर्थात जब तक पहली आवश्यकता की पूर्ति नहीं हो जाती तब तक व्यक्ति दूसरी आवश्यकता तक नही पहुँच सकता अर्थात उसे तब तक दूसरी आवश्यकता के सम्बंध में ज्ञान नही होता कि उसको उसकी भी आवश्यकता हैं। तो आइए जानते है मैस्लो सिद्धांत के 5 चरण कौन-कौन से हैं? 5 steps of Maslow theory जिनकी प्राप्ति हेतु मनुष्य निरंतर प्रयत्न करते रहता हैं।

मैस्लो सिद्धांत के 5 चरण (5 Steps of Maslow theory)

Maslow Theory में मानव की आवश्यकताओं के 5 चरणों की व्याख्या की है जिसकी प्राप्ति हेतु मनुष्य निरंतर क्रियाशील रहता है। इन पांच चरणों को मैस्लो ने निम्न श्रेणियों में विभाजित किया हैं-
maslow need theory in hindi
  1. शारीरिक आवश्यकता (Physical need)
  2. सुरक्षा की आवश्यकता (Safety requirements)
  3. प्यार एवं संबंधों की आवश्यकता (Need for Love and Belonging)
  4. आत्मसम्मान की आवश्यकता (Self-respect Requirements)
  5. आत्मबोध (Self-actualization)

● शारीरिक आवश्यकता (Physical need) – Maslow Theory के अनुसार मनुष्य की प्राथमिक आवश्यकता उसकी शारीरिक संतुष्टि होती है जिसके अभाव में वह जीवन व्यतित करने की कल्पना तक नही कर सकता। शारीरिक आवश्यकताओं में भोजन, पानी, वस्त्र,मन की एकाग्रता, यौन संबंधी आवश्यकताएं एवं शरीर के आराम हेतु निद्रा आदि। मैस्लो सिद्धांत के अनुसार यह सभी आवश्यकताएं मनुष्य की प्राथमिक आवश्यकताएं होती है जिसकी पूर्ति हेतु वह सर्वप्रथम प्रयत्न करता हैं। इन सभी आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति हो जाने के पश्चात इन सभी आवश्यकताओं को स्थायी रूप प्रदान करने हेतु एवं इन आवश्यकताओं को संरक्षित करने हेतु उसे सुरक्षा की आवश्यकता महसूस होती है।

● सुरक्षा की आवश्यकता (Safety) – मैस्लो सिद्धांत के अनुसार जब व्यक्ति को उसकी प्रथम चरण की आवश्यकता की पूर्ति हो जाती है तो तब उसको अपने अस्तित्व की चिंता होने लगती है वह अपने अस्तित्व की महत्ता को जानने लगता है जिस कारण वह अपने जीवन-मृत्यु के संबंध में सोचने लगता हैं। अपने जीवन को स्थिरता प्रदान करने के लिए उसे इस दूसरे चरण की आवश्यकता महसूस होती हैं।

● प्यार और संबंधों की आवश्यता ( Love and Belonging) – व्यक्तियों को अपनी आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति हेतु अन्य व्यक्तियों की आवश्यकता होती है वह इन समस्त आवश्यकताओं की प्राप्ति अकेले रहकर नही कर सकता। जिस कारण वह अपने परिवार का निर्माण करता है एवं समाज के साथ विभिन्न प्रकार के संबंधों की स्थापना करता है जैसे- पत्नी,भाई,बहन,प्यार,दोस्त आदि। सुरक्षा की आवश्यकता के चरणों की पूर्ति हो जाने के पश्चात ही वह इस चरण की आवश्यकता की पूर्ति हेतु क्रियाशील हो जाता हैं।

● आत्मसम्मान की आवश्यकता (Self-respect) – प्यार और संबंधों की आवश्यकता की पूर्ति हो जाने के पश्चात उसे समाज मे गौरवपूर्ण तरीके से जीवनयापन करने हेतु आत्मसम्मान की आवश्यकता महसूस होती है जिस कारण वह एक गौरवपूर्ण पद प्राप्त करने और दूसरे से अपनी एक अलग पहचान बनाने अर्थात खुद को विशिष्ट दिखाने की आवश्यकता की पूर्ति करने का प्रयास करता हैं। जिस कारण समाज के सभी लोग उससे प्रेमपूर्वक व्यवहार करें एवं उसका आदर करें। मैस्लो के अनुसार- मनुष्य जीवनपर्यंत इन चार चरणों की प्राप्ति हेतु सदैव क्रियाशील रहता है एवं वह सदैव यह प्रयास करता है कि इन आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति वह जल्द से जल्द कर सके और कम ही ऐसे लोग होते है जो इन चार चरणों की पूर्ति कर पाते है और Maslow Theory के अंतिम चरण आत्मबोध (Self-actualization) में पहुँच पाते हैं।

● आत्मबोध (Self-actualization) – मैस्लो ऐसे मनोवैज्ञानिक थे जिन्होंने सर्वप्रथम आत्मबोध को मनुष्य के लिए महत्वपूर्ण माना। मैस्लो सिद्धांत के अनुसार आत्मबोध मनुष्य की आवश्यकताओं का अंतिम चरण है। इनके अनुसार मनुष्य को आत्मबोध तब होता है जब वह अपने चारों चरणों की पूर्ति कर लेता हैं। इसमे व्यक्ति अपनी आंतरिक शक्तियों को जान लेता है एवं उसे आंतरिक संतुष्टि की प्राप्ति हो जाती है। आत्मबोध अर्थात आत्मा को जानना, सांसारिक कटुता एवं सत्यता को पहचान लेना ही आत्मबोध (Self-actualization) हैं।

मैस्लो (Maslow theory) के इस सिद्धांत को मनोविज्ञान का एक महत्वपूर्ण अभिप्रेरणा के सिद्धांत Theory of motivation के रूप में स्वीकार किया जाता है तथा इसे आवश्यकता पदानुक्रम सिद्धांत (Need of Hierarchy Model) इसलिए कहा गया है क्योंकि इन समस्त आवश्यकताओं की प्राप्ति पदानुक्रम अर्थात क्रमबद्ध तरीके से ही होती है इसमें व्यक्ति नीचे से ऊपर की ओर बढ़ता है अर्थात प्रथम चरण की प्राप्ति होने के पश्चात ही वह दूसरे चरण की आवश्यकता महसूस कर पाता हैं।

जब तक व्यक्ति प्रथम चरण को प्राप्त नही कर लेता तब तक वह दूसरे चरण की प्राप्ति के लिए अग्रसर नही होता अर्थात प्रथम चरण की प्राप्ति के बाद ही उसमे अभिप्रेरणा जागती है और वह अभिप्रेरित (Motivate) होता है कि वह दूसरे चरण की प्राप्ति हेतु विभिन्न प्रयास करें इसलिए भी इसे अभिप्रेरणा का सिद्धांत कहा जाता है तो दोस्तों, आज आपने जाना कि मैस्लो सिद्धांत के पांच चरण (5 steps of Maslow theory in hindi) कौन-कौन से हैं? आपको अगर यह पोस्ट ज्ञानवर्धक लगी हो तो इसे अपने दोस्तों के साथ भी शेयर करें ताकि वह भी इस सिद्धांत को जान सकें और इस पोस्ट से संबंधित अपने विचारों को प्रकट करने हेतु हमें कमेंट करके बताए कि Maslow Theory की कौन-सी आवश्यकता आपको सबसे महत्वपूर्ण लगी।
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