भारतीय संविधान के निर्माण से सम्बन्धित कुछ महत्वपूर्ण जानकारी ||

संविधान की मांग

  • महात्मा गांधी ने 1922 ईस्वी में असहयोग आंदोलन के दौरान मांग की कि भारत का राजनीतिक भाग्य स्वयं भारतीयों द्वारा तय होना चाहिए
  • कानूनी आयोगों और गोलमेज सम्मेलनों की असफलता के कारण भारतीयों की आकांक्षाओं की पूर्ति करने के लिए गवर्नमेंट ऑफ इंडिया एक्ट 1935 पारित किया गया
  • कांग्रेस ने 1935 ईस्वी में मांग की कि भारत का संविधान बगैर किसी बाहरी हस्तक्षेप के बनना चाहिए
  • 1938 ईस्वी में जवाहर लाल नेहरू ने 1939 ईस्वी में कांग्रेस कार्यसमिति ने भारतीयों की अपनी संविधान सभा की स्पष्ट रुप से मांग की

मंत्रिमंडल मिशन योजना (कैबिनेट मिशन प्लान 1946)

भारतीयों की मांग पर ब्रिटिश सरकार द्वारा 1942 ईस्वी में भेजे गए क्रिस्प  मिशन को राष्ट्रवादियों द्वारा अस्वीकार कर दिए जाने के बाद ब्रिटिश सरकार ने 1946 ईस्वी में एक मंत्रिमंडल मिशन योजना प्रस्तुत की जिसमें जो प्रबंध किए गए थे वह निम्नवत है

  • भारत एक संघ होगा जो ब्रिटिश भारत एवं देशी रियासतों से मिलकर बना होगा
  •  संघ की एक कार्यपालिका एवं एक विधानमंडल होगा जो प्रांतों एवं राज्यों के प्रतिनिधियों से मिलकर गठित होगा सभी दिनों की सहायता से शीघ्र ही एक अंतरिम सरकार का गठन किया जाएगा जिसमें सभी विभाग भारतीयों के हाथों में होंगे

अंतरिम सरकार

  • मार्च 1946 ईस्वी में भारत आए कैबिनेट मिशन योजना के प्रावधानों के अनुसार 24 अगस्त 1946 ईस्वी को अंतरिम सरकार की घोषणा की गई 2 सितंबर 1946 को जवाहर लाल नेहरू के नेतृत्व में अंतरिम सरकार का अंतरिम सरकार का गठन किया गया
  • वास्तव में वायसराय की कार्यकारिणी परिषद ही अंतरिम सरकार थी वायसराय इसका अध्यक्ष एवं जवाहरलाल नेहरू उपाध्यक्ष थे
  • इस सरकार में नेहरू के अलावा सदस्यों की कुल संख्या 11 थी आरंभ में मुस्लिम लीग इस सरकार में शामिल नहीं हुई परंतु 26 अक्टूबर 1946 को पुनर्गठन के अवसर पर इसके 5 सदस्य सरकार में शामिल हुए

1946 का मंत्रिमंडल

  • जवाहरलाल नेहरू को उपाध्यक्ष कार्यकारिणी परिषद विदेश मामले और राष्ट्रमंडल 
  • वल्लभ भाई पटेल को गृह सूचना एवं प्रसारण मंत्रालय
  • बलदेव सिंह रक्षा मंत्रालय
  • जॉन मथाई उद्योग मंत्रालय
  • सी राजगोपालाचारी शिक्षा मंत्रालय
  • डॉक्टर एच जे भाभा खान एवं बंदरगाह मंत्रालय
  • डॉक्टर राजेंद्र प्रसाद खाद्य एवं कृषि मंत्रालय
  • आसफ अली रेलवे मंत्रालय
  • जगजीवन राम श्रम एवं कल्याण

वे सदस्य जो मुस्लिम लीग से बाद में शामिल हुए थे

  • लियाकत अली खान वित्त मंत्रालय
  • आई आई चंडीगढ़ वाणिज्य
  • अब्दुल खान नस्तर संचार
  • गजफ्फर अली  स्वास्थ्य
  • जोगेंद्र नाथ विधि

संविधान सभा 

  • संविधान का निर्माण किसी देश के संविधान का ढांचा तैयार करने के लिए नागरिकों द्वारा प्रतिनिधि निकाय को संविधान सभा कहा जाता है संविधान सभा का  सिद्धांतिक प्रतिपादन सर्वप्रथम इंग्लैंड  की समानता वादियो ने एवं  हेनरी  वेन  ने किया था
  • भारतीय संविधान के निर्माण के लिए कैबिनेट मिशन योजना के अनुरूप 389 निर्वाचित प्रतिनिधियों द्वारा संविधान सभा का गठन होना था जिसमें से प्रत्येक 10 लाख की आबादी पर संविधान सभा के लिए एक सदस्य प्रांतीय विधान सभा के सदस्यों द्वारा चुना जाना था
  • भारतीय प्रांतों के लिए नियत की गई 296 सीटों के निर्वाचन का कार्य जुलाई-अगस्त 1946 में पूरा कर लिया गया इसमें कांग्रेस ने 208 मुस्लिम लीग ने 73 निर्दलियों ने 8 तथा छोटी छोटी पार्टियों ने 7 स्थान पर विजय प्राप्त की
  • संविधान सभा की कुल सदस्य संख्या 389 इसमें ब्रिटिश भारत से 296 तथा देशी रियासतों से 93 सदस्य थे
  • प्रांतों के 296 सदस्यों में से स्थानों पर आवंटन इस प्रकार था सामान्य 213 मुस्लिम 79 एवं सिख 4 थे
  • संविधान सभा की पहली बैठक नई दिल्ली स्थित संसद भवन के केंद्रीय कक्ष में 9 दिसंबर 1946 को आयोजित हुई जिसका मुस्लिम लीग ने बहिष्कार किया था
  • 3 जून 1947 की योजना  के अनुरूप पाकिस्तान के लिए एक अलग संविधान सभा गठित की गई जिसमें संविधान सभा की सदस्यता घट गई एवं उसमें प्रांतों के 235 एवं देशी रजवाड़ों के 73 प्रतिनिधि रह गए अतः संविधान सभा में अब मात्र 308 सदस्य रह गए थे
  • 26 नवंबर 1949 को 284 सदस्य उपस्थित थे जिन्होंने अंतिम रूप से पारित संविधान पर हस्ताक्षर किए

संविधान की समितियां 

  • प्रारूप समिति अध्यक्ष भीमराव अंबेडकर सदस्यों की संख्या 7
  • प्रारूप समीक्षा समिति अध्यक्ष अल्लादी कृष्णास्वामी अय्यर सदस्यों की संख्या  9
  • कच्चा प्रारूप समिति अध्यक्ष बेनेगल नरसिंह राव सदस्यों की संख्या 4
  • संघ संविधान समिति अध्यक्ष जवाहरलाल नेहरू सदस्यों की संख्या 15
  • प्रांतीय संविधान समिति अध्यक्ष बल्लभ भाई पटेल सदस्यों की संख्या 25
  • कार्य संचालन समिति अध्यक्ष के एम मुंशी सदस्यों की संख्या 3
  • मूल अधिकार एवं अल्पसंख्यक समिति अध्यक्ष बल्लभ भाई पटेल सदस्यों की संख्या 54
  • संघ शक्ति समिति अध्यक्ष जवाहरलाल नेहरू सदस्यों की संख्या  9
  • झंडा समिति अध्यक्ष जे बी कृपलानी

महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य 

  1. पहली बैठक की अध्यक्षता प्रथम व अंतिम अस्थाई अध्यक्ष डॉक्टर सच्चिदानंद सिन्हा ने की
  2. डॉक्टर राजेंद्र प्रसाद 11 दिसंबर 1946 ईसवीं को स्थाई रूप से संविधान सभा के अध्यक्ष चुन लिए गए
  3. जवाहर लाल नेहरू द्वारा 13 दिसंबर 1946 को संविधान सभा के सामने उद्देश्य का प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत किया गया
  4. संविधान सभा में उद्देश्य प्रस्ताव को 22 जनवरी 1947 ईस्वी को पारित कर दिया
  5. 29 अगस्त 1947 ईस्वी को एक प्रारूप समिति का गठन डॉक्टर भीमराव अंबेडकर के नेतृत्व में किया गया
  6. जिसके अध्यक्ष डॉक्टर भीमराव अंबेडकर  तथा इसके सदस्य सर गोपाल स्वामी आयंगर मोहम्मद सादुल्लाह कन्हैया लाल माणिक लाल मुंशी,   ए  के  अय्यर, बी एल मित्तल डी पी खेतान थे
  7. भीमराव अंबेडकर की अध्यक्षता में भारतीय संविधान का प्रारूप  तैयार हुआ इसलिए उन्हें भारतीय संविधान का जनक कहा गया
  8. भारतीय संविधान सभा का संवैधानिक सलाहकार बेनेगल नरसिंह राव को नियुक्त किया गया
  9. संविधान सभा में अनुसूचित जनजाति की सदस्य संख्या 23 एवं महिला सदस्यों की संख्या 9 थी
  10. संविधान के प्रारूप पर 114 दिनों तक चर्चा हुई
  11. फरवरी 1948 ईस्वी में संविधान का प्रारूप प्रकाशित किया गया 26 नवंबर  1949 को संविधान के प्रारूप पर अध्यक्ष ने हस्ताक्षर कर दिए एवं नागरिकता निर्वाचन तथा अंतरिम संसद तत्काल प्रभाव से लागू हो गए
  12. शेष  संविधान 26 जनवरी  1950 को प्रकट हुआ इस दिन भारत में गणतंत्र दिवस मनाया जाता है भारतीय गणतंत्र के पहले राष्ट्रपति के उम्मीदवार के रूप में डॉक्टर राजेंद्र प्रसाद का नाम जवाहर लाल नेहरू ने प्रस्तावित किया तथा सरदार पटेल ने समर्थन किया
  13. संविधान सभा की अंतिम बैठक 24 जनवरी 1950 को हुई संविधान के निर्माण में 2 वर्ष 11 महीने 18 दिनों का समय लगा
  14. भारतीय संविधान के निर्माण में लगभग ₹64 खर्च हुए  
  15. एच बी आई आयंगर  संविधान सभा के सचिव थे तथा वे राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचन निर्वाचन अधिकारी भी थे
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