मानव शरीर- उत्सर्जन तंत्र के बारे में सारी जानकारी ||

शरीर द्वारा अपशिष्ट तथा अवांछित पदार्थों का त्याग उत्सर्जन (Excretion) कहलाता है। भोजन से हमें कार्बोहाइड्रेट, प्रोटीन, वसा आदि पदार्थ प्राप्त होते हैं। ये पदार्थ पचने के बाद पाचन नलिका से रक्त कोशिकाओं द्वारा शरीर की विभिन्न ऊतक कोशिकाओं में पहुंचते हैं। कोशिकाओं के अंदर ऊर्जा के लिए ऑक्सीजन द्वारा इन पदार्थों का ऑक्सीकरण होता है, जिसमें ऊर्जा के अलावा कार्बन डाईऑक्साइड, जल-वाष्प, अमोनिया, यूरिया, यूरिक अम्ल आदि हानिकारक पदार्थ बनते हैं। इनका शरीर से बाहर निकलना अति आवश्यक है, क्योंकि ये विषैले पदार्थ हैं। इनमें कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड, जल-वाष्प, वाष्प, श्वसन-क्रिया द्वारा बाहर निकल जाते हैं। एक व्यक्ति प्रति मिनट 0.2 लीटर कार्बन डाईऑक्साइड का त्याग करता है। अमोनिया, यूरिया और यूरिक अम्ल रुधिर कोशिकाओं के द्वारा यकृत में पहुंचते हैं, जहां अमोनिया यूरिया में बदल जाती है। नाइट्रोजन के यौगिक यूरिया और यूरिक अम्ल, यकृत से रक्त द्वारा गुर्दो (Kidney) में पहुंचते हैं। गुर्दे, छन्ने का काम करते हैं और इन पदार्थों को रक्त से अलग कर देते हैं। एक व्यक्ति के गुर्दे प्रति मिनट लगभग 120 मिली. रक्त छानते हैं। समस्त रक्त को छानने की क्रिया एक दिन में लगभग 30 बार होती है।

छने हुए पदार्थ में यूरिया और यूरिक अम्ल के अलावा अन्य हानिकारक पदार्थ भी पानी में घुले होते हैं। ये सभी पदार्थ मूत्र के रूप में शरीर से बाहर निकल जाते हैं। एक दिन में एक व्यक्ति लगभग एक लीटर मूत्र त्याग करता है।

हमारी त्वचा भी उत्सर्जन का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण अंग है। त्वचा से पसीने के रूप में जल और लवण शरीर से बाहर निकल जाते हैं। एक व्यक्ति पसीने के रूप में 0.7 लीटर पानी और कुछ लवण प्रतिदिन शरीर से बाहर निकालता है।

मूत्र के असामान्य घटक
घटककारण
ग्लूकोज़मधुमेह
प्रोटीनवृक्क–रोग
एसिटोनमधुमेह, भूखा रहना
रक्ताणु (RBCs)मूत्र-तंत्र में संक्रमण
श्वेताणु (WBCs)अधिक संख्या में होने का अर्थ है मूत्र तंत्र में संक्रमण होना
यूरिक अम्ल के क्रिस्टलगठिया (गाऊट)

प्राणियों में उत्सर्जन

  • अमीबा तथा अन्य एक कोशिकीय प्राणियों में संकुचनशील रिक्तिका उत्सर्जन तथा परासरण-नियमन का कार्य करती है।
  • स्पंज और (नाइडेरिया eg.- हाइड्रा) में अपशिष्ट पदार्थ क्रमशः ऑस्कुलम एवं मुखद्वार द्वारा विसरित होती है।
  • छपते कृमियों में उत्सर्जन की इकाई एक कोशकीय होती है जिन्हें ज्वाला कोशिका कहते हैं।
  • उच्चतर जंतुओं में विभिन्न नलिकाकार संरचनाएं उत्सर्जन अंग बनाती है।
  • केचुएं में नलिकाकार संरचनाएं वृक्क कहलाती है।
  • मनुष्य में सूक्ष्म और बारीक नलिकाएं होती हैं, जिन्हे वृक्काणु (नेफ्रान) कहते हैं।
  • मनुष्य में दो वृक्क होते हैं तथा प्रत्येक वृक्क में लगभग 10 लाख वृक्काणु (नेफ्रान) होते हैं
  • प्रोटोजोआ तथा अकोशिकीय जीव में उत्सर्जन अंग नहीं होते। उत्सर्जी पदार्थ, विसरण द्वारा प्लाज्मा झिल्ली से होकर निष्कासित होता है।
  • आर्थोपोडा जन्तुओं में उत्सर्जन भिन्न प्रकार से होता है, उदाहरण-
  1. पेलिमोन, जो क्रेस्टेशिया वर्ग का जन्तु है, में हरित ग्रंथि द्वारा उत्सर्जन होता है।
  2. कॉकरोच जो कीट वर्ग में है, में उत्सर्जन अंग मैल्पीघी नलिकाओं द्वारा होता है।

उत्सर्जी पदार्थों के आधार पर जन्तुओं का वर्गीकरण

अ. अमोनोटेलिक 

  • इन जन्तुओं का उत्सर्जी पदार्थ मुख्यतः अति विषैली अमोनिया है, उदाहरण- कुछ मछलियाँ, सभी प्रोटोजोआ, पेरीफेरा अन्य अकशेरूकी उभयचर

ब. यूरिकोटेलिक

  • मुख्य उत्सर्जी पदार्थ कम विषैला यूरिक अम्ल है, उदाहरण – सरीसृप, पक्षी तथा कीट
  • जल में अघुलनशील, ठोस अथवा अर्द्धठोस स्वरूप

स. यूरिओटेलिक

  • मुख्य उत्सर्जी पदार्थ यूरिया है, उदाहरण- स्तनियों, केंचुओं, घड़ियाल कुल के सदस्यों में।
उत्सर्जन तंत्र के दोष
गुर्दा निष्कार्यता (Kidney failure)गुर्दे की पथरी (Kidney stones)
एक असामान्य दशा जिसमें गुर्दे मूत्र नहीं बना पाते। यह कई कारणों से हो सकता है जैसे अधिकतम दाब, आघात, बैक्टीरिया-संक्रमण अथवा टॉक्सिनों का प्रभाव।गुर्दे के द्रोणि (pelvis) क्षेत्र में विविध खनिज क्रिस्टलों का एक पिंड के रूप में एकत्रित हो जाना। ऐसी पथरियाँ मूत्र के रास्ते में अवरोध पैदा कर देती हैं।
उत्सर्जी अंगउत्सर्जी पदार्थ
वृक्कनाइट्रोजनी पदार्थ
त्वचास्वेद ग्रंथियाँ द्वारा पानी यूरिया एवं अन्य लवण
फुफ्फुसCO2
आंतइनकी परत कुछ लवणों का उत्सर्जन करती है, जो मल के साथ बाहर निकल जाते हैं।
यकृतनाइट्रोजनी पदार्थों को निष्कासित करने में सहायक

मूत्र निर्माण

नेफ्रॉन उत्सजी तथा परासरण नियमन प्रकायाँ को तीन चरणों में पूरा करते हैं:

  1. परानिस्पंदन (Ultrafiltration)
  2. चयनात्मक पुनःअवशोषण (Selective reabsorption)
  3. नालिकीय स्रवण (Tubular secretion)

यूरोक्रोम की उपस्थिति के कारण सामान्य मूत्र पीले रंग का होता है जो हीमोग्लोबिन के विघटन से बनता है। मूत्र में उपस्थित अकार्बनिक लवण, क्लोराइड, फास्फेट और सल्फेट के रूप में सोडियम, पोटेशियम, कैल्शियम व मैग्निशियम होते हैं। यूरीनोयड (Urinoids) के कारण इसमें एरोमैटिक गन्ध होती है। मूत्र की स्पेशिफिक ग्रैबिटी 1.003–1.032 एवं pH सामान्यत: 6. 0 होता है।

डायलिसिस (अपोहन)

  • संक्रमण, आघात, रुधिर प्रवाह में अवरोध के कारण वृक्क निष्क्रिय हो सकते हैं। ऐसी अवस्था में रूधिर में अपशिष्ट पदार्थों का निस्पंदन करने, उसमें जल तथा आयन की पर्याप्त का प्रयोग किया जाता है, जो डायलिसिस (Dialysis) नामक तकनीक पर आधारित होती है।
  • किसी अन्य व्यक्ति के सुमेलित वृक्क का, रोगी के शरीर में प्रत्यारोपण ( Transplant) भी किया जा सकता है।
  • डायलिसिस के नियम अपोहन के उपकरण में सेल्युलोज की लम्बी कुंडलित नलियाँ अपोहन विलयन से भरी टंकी में लगी होती है। जब रुधिर इन नलियों से प्रवाहित होता है तब अपशिष्ट पदार्थ विसरित होकर टंकी के विलयन में आ जाता है। स्वच्छ रुधिर रोगी के शरीर में पुन: प्रविष्ट करा दिया जाता है।
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