हरियाणा दर्शन : जिला फरीदाबाद || HSSC EXAMS|| औद्योगिक नगरी ||

क्षेत्रफल : 741 वर्ग किलोमीटर

जनसंख्या : 1809733

जनसंख्या घनत्व: 2442 व्यक्ति प्रतिवर्ग किमी.

लिंगानुपात : 873

साक्षरता दर : 83.04

गठन की तिथि : 2 अगस्त, 1979

मुख्य उद्योग: एस्कॉर्ट ट्रैक्टर, ऑटो पार्टस, टायर ट्यूब

परिचय : फरीदाबाद को औद्योगिक नगरी होने का गौरव प्राप्त है। फरीदाबाद शहर 1607 ई० में जहाँगीर के कोषाधिकारी शेख फरीद द्वारा बसाया गया। इसके निकट ही स्थित सीही नामक गाँव में महाकवि सूरदास का जन्म हुआ था। सन् 1947 में स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्ति के समय फरीदाबाद एक अविकसित क्षेत्र था। नया फरीदाबाद देश के उन दस नगरों में शामिल था जो विशेषकर विस्थापितों के लिए बसाया गया था। हरियाणा में ऐसा दूसरा नगर नीलोखेड़ी है।

महत्त्वपूर्ण बिंदु :

  • फरीदाबाद 15 अगस्त, 1979 को हरियाणा के 12वें जिले के रूप में अस्तित्व में आया।
  • हरियाणा के दक्षिण में स्थित यह जिला देश की राजधानी दिल्ली से लगभग 25 किमी की दूरी पर स्थित है। इसके उत्तर में दिल्ली, पश्चिम में गुडगाँव और दक्षिण-पूर्व में उत्तर प्रदेश स्थित हैं।
  • इसके पूर्व में सदाबहार यमुना नदी है |
  • फरीदाबाद में पिन व बटन से लेकर ट्रैक्टर, मोटर साइकिल, एयर कंडीशनर कलर, बिजली के स्विच, रेफ्रिजरेटर, टेलीविजन, रेडियो, जूते और टायरों का निर्माण होता है।
  • हरियाणा राज्य में फरीदाबाद सर्वाधिक जनसंख्या वाला जिला है। शहरीकरण में फरीदाबाद सबसे आगे है। यह हरियाणा राज्य का प्रथम जिला हैं जिसकी जनसंख्या 20 लाख से अधिक है। इस जिले में मलिन बस्ती जनसंख्या भी सर्वाधिक है।

 

  • यहाँ के प्रमुख पर्यटक स्थलों में बड़खल झील, सूरजकुंड, अरावली गोल्फ क्लब और राजा नाहरसिंह का महल प्रसिद्ध हैं।
  • फरीदाबाद के गांव तिगांव को अमर शहीदों का गांव कहा जाता है। लगभग 50 हजार की आबादी वाले इस गांव में एक अनुमान के अनुसार 118 लोगों ने प्रथम व द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध के अलावा देश को आजाद कराने में अपने प्राणों की आहुति दी।

जवाहर नवोदय विद्यालय

फरीदाबाद के गांव मोठूका में जवाहर नवोदय विद्यालय स्थापित है।

विश्वविद्यालय

फरीदाबाद स्थित मानव रचना शिक्षण संस्थान को अक्तूबर 2008 में मानव संसाधन विकास मंत्रालय द्वारा डीम्ड यूनिवसिटी का दर्जा प्रदान किया गया और इसका नाम मानव रचना इंटनरेशनल यूनिवर्सिटी हो गया।

दर्शनीय स्थल

सूरजकुण्ड : इस कुण्ड का निर्माण तोमर वंश के राजा सूरजपाल ने करवाया था। सूरजकुण्ड की आकृति उदय होते हुए सूर्य जैसी है।

बड़खल झील : बड़खल झील दिल्ली-मुथरा राष्ट्रीय राजमार्ग से मात्र तीन किमी की दूरी पर स्थित है। इस पर्यटन स्थल का निर्माण सन् 1947 में सिंचाई परियोजना के अन्तर्गत किया गया था।

अरावली का गोल्फ मैदान :  नेशनल हाइवे नम्बर-….. से सटा हुआ यह गोल्फ मैदान बहुत ही सुसज्जित है। इसका डिजाइन अमेरिका के स्टीफन गोल्फ मैदान की भाँति बनाया गया है।

ख्वाजा की सराय :  फरीदाबाद जिले के गाँव सराय ख्वाजा में लगभग तीन सौ वर्ष पुरानी एक सराय है। इस सराय के नाम पर हीगाँव का नाम सराया ख़्वाजा पड़ा। यह सराय परी ख्वाजा ने बनवाई थी।

राजा नाहरसिंह की हवेली, बल्लभगढ : यह हवेली बल्लभगढ़ में दुर्गा प्राचीर के भीतर स्थित है। इस किले बनवाने की योजना राजा बल्लू के शासनकाल में बनायी गई थी, जिसे उनके पुत्र किशनसिंह ने पूरा किया।

डबचिक : फरीदाबाद में दिल्ली-आगरा राष्ट्रीय राजम संख्या दो पर स्थित डबचिक पर्यटन कॉम्पले सैलानियों के आकर्षण का केन्द्र है। यहाँ पर एक रेस्तरां, बार रूम पर्यटक कुटीर और सुन्दर मैदान है।

 

सूरदास जन्मस्थली, सीही : बल्लभगढ़ के निकट स्थित सीही ग्राम सूरदास की जन्मस्थली है। यह साहित्यकारों का आराध्य स्थल है और सूरदास के जन्मदिवस पर यहाँ साहित्यिक कार्यक्रम आयोजित किये जाते हैं।

बाबा फरीद टोम्ब : अवधारणा है कि सूफी संत बाबा फरीद में फरीदाबाद नगर की स्थापना की थी। यह गुम्बद स्थानीय लोगों के लिए तीर्थस्थल है।

मैगपाई टूरिस्ट कॉम्पलैक्स :  दिल्ली-आगरा राजमार्ग पर स्थित मैगपाई टूरिस्ट कॉम्पलेक्स अपने विशाल बगीचों ओर मेहराब आकृति में निर्मित भोटला के लिए विख्यात है।

धौज झील :  फरीदाबाद जिले का यह गाँव अरावली पर्वतमाला में सोहना- फरीदाबाद मार्ग पर स्थित है। पर्वतारोह के लिए यह एक उपयुक्त स्थान है जहाँ लगभग ढा सौ ऐसे पर्वतीय स्थल हैं जो पर्वतारोहियों के लिए विशेष आकर्षण उत्पन्न करते हैं। यहाँ की धौज नामक  झील अत्यन्त दर्शनीय है।

खजिन पदार्थ : स्लेट-पत्थर यहाँ के प्रमुख खजिन पदार्थ हैं।

तिलपत  : जनश्रुति के अनुसार महाभारत के युद्ध को टालने के लिए पाण्डवों ने जो पाँच गाँव मांगे थे ये पानीपत (पनपथ), सोनीपत, इन्द्रप्रस्थ (इन्द्रपत) बाघपत और तिलपत थे, जो सभी यमुना के साथ-साथ स्थित थे |

  • बहादुर जाट गोकला के नेतृत्व में यहाँ सन् 1669 में औरंगजेब के खिलाफ प्रथम युद्ध लड़ा गया।
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