वैदिक काल का इतिहास | सम्पूर्ण जानकारी परीक्षा की दृष्टि से महत्वपूर्ण ||

वैदिक संस्कृति का काल सिन्धु सभ्यता के पश्चात स्वीकार किया गया है। राजनीतिक, आर्थिक, सामाजिक, धार्मिक प्रवृत्तियों में हुए मौलिक विकास क्रम एवं परिवर्तनों को ध्यान में रखते हुए | अध्ययन की सुविधा हेतु वैदिक काल को दो भागों में विभाजित किया गया है–(1) ऋग्वैदिक या पूर्व वैदिक काल (2) उत्तरवैदिक काल ।

वैदिक सभ्यता का काल

  • याकोबी एवं तिलक ने ग्रहादि सम्बन्धी उद्धरणों के आधार पर भारत में आर्यों का आगमन 4000 ई० पू० निर्धारित किया है।
  • मैक्समूलर का अनुमान है कि ऋग्वेद काल 1200 ई० पू० से 1000 ई० पू० तक है। 
  • मान्यतिथि– भारत में आर्यों का आगमन 1500 ई० पू० के लगभग हुआ। 

आर्यों का मूल स्थान आर्य किस प्रदेश के मूल निवासी थे, यह भारतीय इतिहास का एक विवादास्पद प्रश्न है। इस सम्बन्ध में विभिन्न विद्वानों द्वारा दिए गए मत संक्षेप में निम्नलिखित हैं।

  • यूरोप 5 जातीय विशेषताओं के आधार पर पेनका, हर्ट आदि विद्वानों ने जर्मनी को आर्यों का आदि देश स्वीकार किया है। 
  • गाइल्स ने आर्यों का आदि देश हंगरी थवा डेन्यूब घाटी को माना है। 
  • मेयरपीकगार्डन चाइल्डपिगटनेहरिंगबैण्डेस्टीन ने दक्षिणी रूस को आर्यों का मूल निवास स्थान माना है। यह मत सर्वाधिक मान्य है
  • आर्य भारोपीय भाषा वर्ग की अनेक भाषाओं में से एक संस्कृत बोलते थे
  • भाषा वैज्ञानिकों के अनुसार भारोपीय वर्ग की विभिन्न भाषाओं का प्रयोग करने वाले लोगों का सम्बन्ध शीतोष्ण जलवायु वाले ऐसे क्षेत्रों से था जो घास से आच्छादित विशाल मैदान थे
  • यह निष्कर्ष इस मत पर आधारित है कि भारोपीय वर्ग की अधिकांश भाषाओं में भेड़िया, भालूघोड़े जैसे पशुओं और कंरज (बीचतथा भोजवृक्षों के लिए समान शब्दावली है
  • प्राप्त साक्ष्यों के आधार पर इस क्षेत्र की पहचान सामान्यतया आल्पस पर्वत के पूर्वी क्षेत्र यूराल पर्वत श्रेणी के दक्षिण में मध्य एशियाई इलाके के पास के स्टेप मैदानों (यूरेशियासे की जाती है
  • पुरातात्विक साक्ष्यों के आधार पर इस क्षेत्र से एशिया और यूरोप के विभिन्न भागों की ओर वहिर्गामी प्रवासन प्रक्रिया के चिह्न भी मिलते हैं
  • सर्वप्रथम जे० जी० रोड ने 1820 में ईरानी ग्रन्थ जेन्दाअवेस्ता के आधार पर आर्यों को बैक्ट्रिया का मूल निवासी माना
  • 1859 में प्रसिद्ध जर्मन विद्वान मैक्समूलर ने मध्य एशिया को आर्यों का दि देश घोषित किया
  • प्रोफेसर सेलस तथा एडवर्ड मेयर ने भी एशिया को ही आदि देश स्वीकार किया हैओल्डेन बर्ग एवं कीथ कम भी यही मत है।
  • मध्य एशिया से प्राप्त पुरातात्विक साक्ष्य एशिया माइनर में बोगजकोई नामक स्थान से लगभग 1400 ई० पू० का एक लेख मिला है जिसमें मित्र, इन्द्र, वरुण और नासत्य नामक वैदिक देवताओं का नाम लिखा हुआ है।
  • डा० अविनाश चन्द्र ने सप्त सैन्धव प्रदेश को आर्यों का मूल निवास स्थान माना
  • गंगानाथ झा के अनुसार आर्यों का आदि देश भारतवर्ष का ब्रह्मर्षि देश था
  • ए० डी० कल्लू ने कश्मीरडी० एस० त्रिदेव ने मुल्तान के देविका प्रदेश तथा डा० राजबली पाण्डेय ने मध्य प्रदेश को आर्यों का आदिदेश माना है। 
  • दयानंद सरस्वती ने तिब्बत‘ को आर्यो का मूल निवास स्थान माना। 
  • बाल गंगाधर तिलक के अनुसार आर्यों का आदि देश उत्तरी ध्रुव था। 

वैदिक आर्यों को भौगोलिक विस्तार 

  • आर्य सर्वप्रथमसप्त सैन्धव प्रदेश में आकर बसे थे
  • आर्यों का भौगोलिक विस्तार जिस क्षेत्र में था, उसमें अफगानिस्तानपंजाबराजस्थानहरियाणा तथा वर्तमान उत्तर प्रदेश (गंगा नदी तकएवं यमुना नदी के पश्चिम के कुछ भाग सम्मिलित थे। 
  • अफगानिस्तान की अनेक नदियों का उल्लेख ऋग्वेद में है जिनमें प्रमुख हैंकुभा (काबुल)सुवास्तु (स्वात)कुंभु (कुर्रम)गोमती (गोमाल)। 
  • ऋग्वेद में आर्य निवास के लिए सर्वत्र सप्त सैन्धव शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है
  • इस क्षेत्र की सातों नदियों का उल्लेख ऋग्वेद में प्राप्त होता हैसिन्धुसरस्वतीशतुद्रि (सतलज)विपासा (व्यास)परुष्णी (रावी)असिक्नी (चिनाब)और वितस्ता (झेलमऋग्वेद में गंगा नदी का एक बार तथा यमुना नदी का तीन बार उल्लेख हुआ है
  • सरस्वती एवं दृष्द्धती नदियों के बीच का प्रदेश सबसे पुनीत समझा जाता था जिसे ब्रह्मावर्त कहा गया है। 

जातीय एवं अन्तर्जातीय युद्ध

    • आर्यों के आपसी तथा यहाँ के मूल निवासी अनार्यों के साथ युद्धों के अनेक प्रमाण मिलते हैं। 
    • यदु और तुर्वस ऋग्वैदिक काल में आर्यों के दो प्रधान जन थे
    • यदु का सम्बन्ध पशु या पर्श से थातुर्वस ने पार्थिव नामक एक राजा के साथ युद्ध किया था
    • दु और तुर्वसजन भारत में आने वाला नवागुन्तक दल था
    • भरत जन इनसे प्राचीन था। 
    • आर्य इन्द्र के उपासक थे और शायद दो दलों में विभक्त थे
    • एक दल में सुंजयः और भरत या त्रित्सु जन थे जिनका यशोगान भारद्वाज के पुरोहित परिवार ने किया है
    • दूसरे दल में यदुतुर्वसद्रयुनु और पुरु नामक पंचजन थे। 

वैदिक साहित्य  

वैदिक साहित्य के अन्तर्गत चारों वेद–ऋग्वेद, सामवेद, यजुर्वेद एवं अथर्ववेद–ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ, आरण्यक एवं उपनिषदों का परिगणन किया जाता है। वेदों का संकलनकर्ता महर्षि कृष्ण द्वैपायन व्यास को माना जाता है। ‘वेद‘ शब्द संस्कृत के विद् धातु से बना है जिसका अर्थ है ‘ज्ञान‘ प्राप्त करना या जानना। 

वेदत्रयी के अन्तर्गत प्रथम तीनों वेद अर्थात् ऋग्वेद, सामवेद तथा यजुर्वेद आते हैं। वेदों को अपौरुषेय कहा गया है। गुरु द्वारा शिष्यों को मौखिक रुप से कण्ठस्थ कराने के कारण वेदों को श्रुति की संज्ञा दी गयी है। 

ऋग्वेद 

  • ऋग्वेद देवताओं की स्तुति से सम्बन्धित रचनाओं का संग्रह है। ऋग्वेद मानव जाति की प्राचीनतम रचना मानी जाती है।
  • ऋग्वेद 10 मण्डलों में संगठित है। इसमें 2 से 7 तक के मण्डल प्राचीनतम माने जाते हैं।
  • प्रथम एवं दशम मण्डल बाद में जोड़े गये माने जाते हैं।
  • इसमें कुल 1028 सूक्त हैं।
  • गृत्समद, विश्वामित्र, वामदेव, भारद्वाज, अत्रि और वशिष्ठ आदि के नाम ऋग्वेद के मन्त्र रचयिताओं के रूप में मिलते हैं।
  • मन्त्र रचयिताओं में स्त्रियों के भी नाम मिलते हैं, जिनमें प्रमुख हैं–लोपामुद्रा, घोषा, शची, पौलोमी एवं कक्षावृती आदि।
  • विद्वानों के अनुसार ऋग्वेद की रचना पंजाब में हुई थी।
  •  ऋग्वेद की रचना–काल के सम्बन्ध में विभिन्न विद्वानों ने भिन्न–भिन्न मत प्रस्तुत किये हैं।
  • मैक्समूलर 1200 ई० पू० से 1000 के बीच, जौकोबी–तृतीय सहस्राब्दी ई० पू०, बाल गंगाधर तिलक–6000 ई० पू० के लगभग, विण्टरनित्ज–2500–2000 11500 1000 के बीच की अवधि ऋग्वैदिक काल की प्रामाणिक रचना अवधि के रूप में स्वीकृत है। 
  • ऋग्वेद का पाठ करने वाले ब्राह्मण को होतृ कहा गया है। यज्ञ के समय यह ऋग्वेद की ऋचाओं का पाठ करता था। 
  • ‘असतो मा सद्गमय‘ वाक्य ऋग्वेद से लिया गया है |

यजुर्वेद 

  • यजुः का अर्थ होता है यज्ञ। यजुर्वेद में अनेक प्रकार की यज्ञ विधियों का वर्णन किया गया है।
  • इसे अध्वर्यवेद भी कहते हैं। यह वेद दो भाग में विभक्त है–(1) कृष्ण यजुर्वेद (2) शुक्ल यजुर्वेद, कृष्ण यजुर्वेद की चार शाखायें हैं–(1) काठक (2) कपिण्ठल (3) मैत्रायणी (4) तैत्तरीय।
  • यजुर्वेद की पांचवी शाखा को वाजसनेयी कहा जाता है जिसे शुक्ल यजुर्वेद के अन्तर्गत रखा जाता है।
  • यजुर्वेद कर्मकाण्ड प्रधान है। इसका पाठ करने वाले ब्राह्मणों को अध्वर्यु कहा गया है।

सामवेद

  • साम का अर्थ ‘गान‘ से है। यज्ञ के अवसर पर देवताओं का स्तुति करते हुए सामवेद की ऋचाओं का गान करने वाले ब्राह्मणों को उद्गातृ कहते थे। 
  • सामवेद में कुल 1810 ऋचायें हैं। इसमें से अधिकांश ऋग्वैदिक ऋचाओं की पुनरावृत्ति हैं ।
  • मात्र 78 ऋचायें नयी एवं मौलिक हैं |
  • सामवेद तीन शाखाओं में विभक्त है-(1) कौथुम (2) राणायनीय (3) जैमिनीय।

अथर्ववेद

  • अथर्ववेद की रचना अथर्वा ऋषि ने की थी। इसकी दो शाखायें हैं–(1) शौनक (2) पिप्लाद 
  • अथर्ववेद 20 अध्यायों में संगठित है। इसमें 731 सूक्त एवं 6000 के लगभग मन्त्र हैं।
  • इसमें रोग निवारण, राजभक्ति, विवाह, प्रणय–गीत, मारण, उच्चारण, मोहन आदि के मन्त्र, भूत–प्रेतों, अन्धविश्वासों का उल्लेख तथा नाना प्रकार की औषधियों का वर्णन है।
  • अथर्ववेद में विभिन्न राज्यों का वर्णन प्राप्त होता है जिसमें कुरु प्रमुख है।
  • इसमें परीक्षित को कुरुओं का राजा कहा गया है एवं कुरु देश की समृद्धि का वर्णन प्राप्त होता है। 

ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ

  • वैदिक संहिताओं के कर्मकाण्ड की व्याख्या के लिए ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थों की रचना हुई । इनका अधिकांश भाग गद्य में है।

प्रत्येक वैदिक संहिता के लिए अलग-अलग ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ हैं।

  • ऋग्वेद से सम्बन्धित ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ–ऐतरेय एवं कौषीतकी।
  • यजुर्वेद से सम्बन्धित ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ–तैत्तिरीय एवं शतपथ।
  • सामवेद से सम्बन्धित ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ-पंचविंश।
  • अथर्ववेद से सम्बन्धित ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ-गोपथ।

ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थों से हमें परीक्षित के बाद तथा बिम्बिसार के पूर्व की घटनाओं का ज्ञान प्राप्त होता है।

  • ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण में राज्याभिषेक के नियम प्राप्त होते हैं ।
  • शतपथ ब्राह्मण में गन्धार, शल्य, कैकय, कुरु, पांचाल, कोसल, विदेह आदि के उल्लेख प्राप्त होते हैं

आरण्यक

  • आरण्यकों में कर्मकाण्ड की अपेक्षा ज्ञान पक्ष को अधिक महत्व प्रदान किया गया है। वर्तमान में सात आरण्यक उपलब्ध हैं (1) ऐतरेय आरण्यक (2) तैत्तिरीय आरण्यक (3) शांखायन आरण्यक (4) मैत्रायणी आरण्यक (5) माध्यन्दिन आरण्यक (6) तल्वकार आरण्यक उपनिषद्
  • उपनिषदों में प्राचीनतम दार्शनिक विचारों का संग्रह है। ये विशुद्ध रूप से ज्ञान-पक्ष को प्रस्तुत करते हैं। सृष्टि के रचयिता ईश्वर, जीव आदि पर दार्शनिक विवेचन इन ग्रन्थों में उपलब्ध होता है।
  • अपनी सर्वश्रेष्ठ शिक्षा के रूप में उपनिषद हमें यह बताते हैं कि जीवन का उद्देश्य मनुष्य की आत्मा का विश्व की आत्मा, से मिलना है।
  • मुख्य उपनिषद हैं-ईश, केन, कठ, प्रश्न, मुण्डक, माण्डूक्य, तैत्तिरीय, ऐतरेय, छान्दोग्य, वृहदारण्यक, श्वेताश्वर, कौषीतकी आदि।
  • भारत का प्रसिद्ध आदर्श राष्ट्रीय वाक्य ‘सत्यमेव जयते’ मुण्डकोपनिषद से लिया गया है।

वेदों के ब्राह्मण, अरण्यक तथा उपनिषद (Brahmins of Vedas, Aranyak and Upanishad)

वेद

ब्राह्मण

अरण्यक

उपनिषद

उपवेद

प्रवर्तक (उपवेद)

ऋग्वेदऐतरेय ब्राह्मण कौतिकी ब्राह्मणऐतरेय कौतिकीऐतरेय उपनिषद कौतिकीआयुर्वेदप्रजापति
सामवेदपंचविश ब्राह्मण ताण्डय ब्राह्मण षटविश ब्राह्मण जैमिनीय ब्राह्मणछांदोग्य जैमिनीयछांदोग्य उपनिषद केनोपनिषदगंधर्ववेदनारद
यजुर्वेदतैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण शतपथ ब्राह्मणवृहदारण्यक तैतरीयारण्यकश्वेताश्वतरोपनिषद वृहदारण्यक उपनिषद, ईशोपनिषद्, मैत्रायणी उपनिषद, कठोपनिषद, तैतरीय उपनिषदधनुर्वेदविश्वामित्र
अथर्ववेदगोपथ ब्राह्मणमुंडकोपनिषद, प्रश्नोपनिषद, माण्डूक्योपनिषदशिल्प वेदविश्वकर्मा

सामाजिक स्थिति 

  • ऋग्वैदिक काल में सामाजिक संगठन की न्यूनतम इकाई परिवार था। सामाजिक संरचना का आधार सगोत्रता थी । व्यक्ति की पहचान उसके गोत्र से होती थी।
  • परिवार में कई पीढ़ियां एक साथ रहती थीं| नाना, नानी, दादा, दादी, नाती, पोते आदि सभी के | लिए नतृ शब्द का उल्लेख मिलता है। 
  • परिवार पितृसत्तात्मक होता था।पिता के अधिकार असीमित होते थे। वह परिवार के सदस्यों को कठोर से कठोर दण्ड दे सकता था।
  • ऋग्वेद में एक स्थान पर ऋज्रास्व का उल्लेख है जिसे उसके पिता ने अन्धा बना दिया था। ऋग्वेद में ही शुन:शेष का विवरण प्राप्त होता है जिसे उसके पिता ने बेच दिया था। |
  • ऋग्वेद में परिवार के लिए कुल का नहीं बल्कि गृह का प्रयोग हुआ है। | जीवन में स्थायित्व का पुट कम था। मवेशी, रथ, दास, घोड़े आदि के दान के उदाहरण तो प्राप्त होते हैं किन्तु भूमिदान के नहीं।
  • अचल सम्पत्ति के रूप में भूमि एवं गृह अभी स्थान नहीं बना पाये थे । समाज काफी हद तक कबीलाई और समतावादी था।
  • समाज में महिलाओं को सम्मानपूर्व स्थान प्राप्त था । स्त्रियों की शिक्षा की व्यवस्था थी।
  • अपाला, लोपामुद्रा, विश्ववारा, घोषा आदि नारियों के मन्त्र द्रष्टा होकर ऋषिपद प्राप्त करने का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है। पुत्र की भाँति पुत्री को भी उपनयन, शिक्षा एवं यज्ञादि का अधिकार था। 
  • एक पवित्र संस्कार एवं प्रथा के रूप में ‘विवाह‘ की स्थापना हो चुकी थी।
  • बहु विवाह यद्यपि विद्यमान था परन्तु एक पत्नीव्रत प्रथा का ही समाज में प्रचलन था।
  • प्रेम एवं धन के लिए विवाह होने की बात ऋग्वेद से ज्ञात होती है ।
  • विवाह में कन्याओं को अपना मत रखने की छूट थी। कभी–कभी कन्यायें लम्बी उम्र तक या आजीवन ब्रह्मचर्य का पालन करती थीं, इन्हें अमाजू: कहते थे। 
  • ऋग्वेद में अन्तर्जातीय विवाहों पर प्रतिबन्ध नहीं था। वयस्क होने पर विवाह सम्पन्न होते थे। 
  • विवाह विच्छेद सम्भव था। विधवा विवाह का भी प्रचलन था।
  • कन्या की विदाई के समय उपहार एवं द्रव्य दिए जाते थे जिसे वहतु‘ कहते थे। स्त्रियाँ पुनर्विवाह कर सकती थीं। 
  • ऋग्वेद में उल्लेख आया है कि वशिष्ठ उनके पुरोहित हुए और त्रित्सुओं ने उन्नति की।
  • भरत लोगों के राजवंश का नाम त्रित्सु मालुम पड़ता है। जिसके सबसे प्रसिद्ध प्रतिनिधि दिवोदास और उसका पुत्र या पौत्र सुदास 
  • ऋग्वेद महत्वपूर्ण नदी तथा क्रमश: सिन्धु एवं सरस्वती सर्वाधिक पवित्र नदी एक मात्र पर्वत मूजवन्त (हिमाचल) प्रमुख देवता इन्द्र
  • यज्ञ में बलि यज्ञों में पशुओं के बलि का उल्लेख मिलता है।
  • समाज पितृसत्तात्मक वर्ण व्यवस्था नहीं स्त्रियों की दशा बेहतर, यज्ञों में भाग लेने एवं शिक्षा ग्रहण करने का अधिकार था।
  • सामाजिक स्थिति विधवा विवाह, अन्तर्जातीय विवाह, पुनर्विवाह, नियोग, प्रथा का प्रचलन था। पर्दा प्रथा का प्रचलन नहीं था। 
  • वास अधिवास और नीवी जन आर्य लोग जनों में विभक्त थे जिसका मुखिया राजा होता था। 
  • राजा जनता चुनती थी मुख पदाधिकारी पुरोहित, सेनानी सभा वृद्धजनों की छोटी चुनी हुई |
  • मृत्युदण्ड प्रचलित था परन्तु अधिकतर शारीरिक दण्ड दिया जाता था।अग्नि परीक्षा, जल परीक्षा, संतप्त पर परीक्षा के उदाहरण भी प्राप्त होते हैं। 
  • ऋग्वेद में जातीय युद्ध के अनेक उदाहरण प्राप्त होते है।
  • एक युद्ध में सूजयों ने तुर्वशों और उनके मित्र वृचीवतों की सेनाओं को छिन्न–भिन्न कर दिया।
  • दाशराज्ञ युद्ध दाशराज्ञ युद्ध में भरत जन के राजन सुदास ने दस राजाओं के एक संघ को पराजित किया था। यह युद्ध परुष्णी (रावी) नदी के किनारे हुआ था।
  • युद्ध का कारण यह था कि प्रारम्भ में विश्वामित्र भरत जन के पुरोहित थे। विश्वामित्र की ही प्रेरणा से भरतों ने पंजाब में विपासा और शतुद्री को जीता था।
  • परंतु बाद में सुदास ने वशिष्ठ को अपना पुरोहित नियुक्त किया। विश्वामित्र ने दस राजाओं का एक संघ बनाया और सुदास के खिलाफ युद्ध घोषित कर दिया। इस युद्ध में पांच आर्य जातियों के कबीले थे 
  • और पाँच आर्येतर जनों के। इसी युद्ध में विजय के पश्चात भरत जन, जिनके आधार पर इस देश का नाम भारत पड़ा, की प्रधानता स्थापित हुई। ऋग्वैदिक राजनीतिक अवस्था राजनीतिक संगठन 
  • ऋग्वेद में अनेक राजनीतिक संगठनों का उल्लेख मिलता है यथा राष्ट्र, जन, विश एवं ग्राम। ऋग्वेद में यद्यपि राष्ट्र शब्द का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है, परन्तु ऐसा माना गया है कि भौगोलिक क्षेत्र विशेष पर आधारित स्थायी राज्यों का उदय अभी नहीं हुआ  था। 
  • राष्ट्र में अनेक जन होते थे।जनों में पंचजन–अनु, द्रयु, यदु, तुर्वस एवं पुरु प्रसिद्ध थे। अन्य जन थे भारत, त्रित्सु, सुंजय, त्रिवि आदि। 
  • जन सम्भवतः विश में विभक्त होते थे। विश 1(कैंटन या जिला) के प्रधान को विशाम्पति कहा गया है। 
  • विश ग्रामों में विभक्त रहते थे। ग्राम का मुखिया ग्रामणी होता था।
  • राजा ऋग्वेद में राजा के लिए राजन्, सम्राट, जनस्य गोप्ता आदि शब्दों का व्यवहार हुआ है। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में सामान्यत: राजतन्त्र का प्रचलन था। राजा का पद दैवी नहीं माना जाता था।
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में राजा का पद आनुवंशिक होता था। परन्तु हमें समिति अथवा कबीलाई सभा द्वारा किए जाने वाले चुनावों के बारे में की सूचना मिलती है। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में राजन् एक प्रकार से कबीले का मुखिया होता था ।राजपद पर राजा विधिवत अभिषिक्त होता था। 
    • राजा को जनस्य गोपा (कबीले का रक्षक) कहा गया है। वह गोधन की रक्षा करता था, युद्ध का नेतृत्व करता था तथा कबीले की ओर से देवताओं की आराधना करता था। |
    • सभा, समिति एवं गण  ऋग्वेद में हमें सभा, समिति, विदथ और गण जैसे कबीलाई परिषदों के उल्लेख मिलते हैं। इन परिषदों में जनता के हितों, सैनिक अभियानों और धार्मिक अनुष्ठानों के बारे में विचार–विमर्श होता था। सभा एवं समिति की कार्यवाही में स्त्रियाँ भी भाग लेती थीं।
    • पदाधिकारी पुरोहित, सेनानी, स्पश (गुप्तचर) दैनिक कार्यों में राजा की सहायता करते थे। नियमित कर व्यवस्था की शुरुआत नहीं हुई थी।
  • लोग स्वेच्छा से अपनी सम्पत्ति का एक भाग राजन् को उसकी सेवा के बदले में दे देते थे।इस भेंट को बलि कहते थे। कर वसूलने वाले किसी अधिकारी का नाम नहीं मिलता है। गोचर–भूमि के अधिकारी को व्राजपति कहा गया है।
  • कुलप परिवार का मुखिया होता था। |
  • ऋग्वैदिक काल में राजा नियमित सेना नहीं रखता था। युद्ध के अवसर पर सेनायें विभिन्न कबीलों से एकत्र कर ली जाती थी।
  • युद्ध के अवसर पर जो सेना एकत्र की जाती थी उनमें व्रात, गण, ग्राम और शर्ध नामक विविध कबीलाई सैनिक सम्मिलित होते थे।
  • ऋग्वैदिक प्रशासन मुख्यत: एक कबीलाई व्यवस्था वाला शासन था जिसमें सैनिक भावना प्रधान होती थी।
  • नागरिक व्यवस्था अथवा प्रादेशिक प्रशासन जैसी किसी चीज का अस्तित्व नहीं था, क्योंकि लोग विस्तार 
  • कर अपना स्थान बदलते जा रहे थे।
  • ऋग्वेद में न्यायाधीश का उल्लेख नहीं प्राप्त होता है। समाज में कई प्रकार के अपराध होते थे। गायों की चोरी आम बात थी । इसके अतिरिक्त लेन–देन के झगड़े भी होते थे।
  • सामाजिक परम्पराओं का उल्लंघन करने पर दण्ड दिया जाता था। 

भौतिक जीवन 

  • ऋग्वैदिक लोग मुख्यत: पशुपालक थे। वे स्थायी जीवन नहीं व्यतीत करते थे।
  • पशु ही सम्पत्ति की वस्तु समझे जाते थे। गवेषण, गोषु, गव्य आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग युद्ध के लिए किया जाता था। जन–जीवन में युद्ध के वातावरण का बोलबाला था।
  • लोग मिट्टी एवं घास फूस से बने मकानों में रहते थे। लोग लोहे से अपरिचित थे।
  • कृष्ण अयस शब्द का सर्वप्रथम उल्लेख जेमिनी उपनिषद (उत्तर वैदिक काल) में मिलता है। 
  • ऋग्वैदिक लोग कोर वाली कुल्हाड़ियां, कांसे की कटारें और खड़ग का इस्तेमाल करते थे। तांबा राजस्थान की खेत्री खानों से प्राप्त किया जाता था।
  • भारत में आर्यों की सफलता के कारण थे–घोड़े, रथ और ताँबे के बने कुछ हथियार ।
  • कृषि कार्यों की जानकारी लोगों को थी।
  • भूमि को सुनियोजित पद्धति का नियोजित संपत्ति का रूप नहीं दिया गया था।
  • विभिन्न शिल्पों की जानकारी भी प्राप्त होती है।
    • ऋग्वेद से बढ़ई, रथकार, बुनकर, चर्मकार एवं कारीगर आदि शिल्पवर्ग की जानकारी प्राप्त होती है। 
    • हरियाणा के भगवान पुरा में तेरह कमरों वाला एक मकान प्राप्त हुआ है, यहाँ तेरह कमरों वाला एक मिट्टी का घर प्रकाश में आया है। यहाँ मिली वस्तुओं की तिथि का निर्धारण 1600 ई० पू० से 1000 ई० पू० तक किया गया है।
    • ऋग्वेदकालीन संस्कृति ग्राम–प्रधान थी। नगर स्थापना ऋग्वेद काल की विशेषता नहीं है। 
    • नियोग प्रथा के प्रचलन के संकेत भी ऋग्वेद से प्राप्त होते हैं जिसके अन्तर्गत पुत्र विहीन विधवा पुत्र प्राप्ति के निमित्त अपने देवर के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध स्थापित करती थी। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में बाल विवाह नहीं होते थे, प्राय: 16–17 वर्ष की आयु में विवाह होते थे।
    • पर्दा प्रथा का प्रचलन नहीं था। सती प्रथा का भी प्रचलन नहीं था।
    • स्त्रियों को राजनीति में भाग लेने का अधिकार नहीं था।
    • अन्त्येष्टि क्रिया पुत्रों द्वारा ही सम्पन्न की जाती थी, पुत्रियों द्वारा नहीं।
    • स्त्रियों को सम्पत्ति सम्बन्धी अधिकार नहीं थे।
 
  • पिता की सम्पत्ति का अधिकारी पुत्र होता था, पुत्री नहीं। पिता, पुत्र के अभाव में गोद लेने का अधिकारी था। 

वर्ण व्यवस्था एवं सामाजिक वर्गीकरण

    • ऋग्वेदकालीन समाज प्रारम्भ में वर्ग विभेद से रहित था। जन के सभी सदस्यों की सामाजिक प्रतिष्ठा समान थी। ऋग्वेद में वर्ण शब्द कहीं–कहीं रंग तथा कहीं–कहीं व्यवसाय के रूप में प्रयुक्त हुआ 
    • प्रारम्भ में ऋग्वेद में तीनों वर्गों का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है–ब्रह्म, क्षेत्र तथा विशः ब्रमेय यज्ञों को सम्पन्न करवाते थे, हानि से रक्षा करने वाले क्षत्र (क्षत्रिय) कहलाते थे। शेष जनता विश कहलाती थी।
    • इन तीनों वर्गों में कोई कठोरता नहीं थी। एक ही परिवार के लोग ब्रह्म, क्षत्र या विश हो सकते थे। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में सामाजिक विभेद का सबसे बड़ा कारण था आर्यों का स्थानीय निवासियों पर विजय ।
 
    • आर्यों ने दासों और दस्युओं को जीतकर उन्हें गुलाम और शूद्र बना लिया।
    • शूद्रों का सर्वप्रथम उल्लेख ऋग्वेद के दशवें मण्डल (पुरुष सुक्त) में हुआ है। अत: यह प्रतीत होता है कि शूद्रों की उत्पत्ति ऋग्वैदिक काल के अंतिम चरण में हुई।
    • डा० आर० एस० शर्मा का विचार है कि शूद्र वर्ग में आर्य एवं अनार्य दोनों ही वर्गों के लोग सम्मिलित थे। आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक विषमताओं के फलस्वरूप समाज में उदित हुए। |
    • श्रमिक वर्ग की ही सामान्य संज्ञा शूद्र हो गयी। | ऋग्वेद के दशवें मण्डल (पुरुष सूक्त) में वर्ण व्यवस्था की उत्पत्ति के दैवी सिद्धान्त का वर्णन प्राप्त होता है। इसमें शूद्र शब्द का सर्वप्रथम उल्लेख करते हुए कहा गया है कि विराट पुरुष के मुख से ब्राह्मण, उसकी बाहुओं से क्षत्रिय, जंघाओं से वैश्य तथा पैरों से शूद्र उत्पन्न हुए। परन्तु इस समय वर्गों में जटिलता नहीं आई थी तथा समाज के विभिन्न वर्ग या वर्ण या व्यवसाय पैतृक नहीं बने थे। 
    • वर्ण व्यवस्था जन्मजात न होकर व्यवसाय पर आधारित थी। व्यवसाय परिवर्तन सम्भव था। एक ही परिवार के सदस्य विभिन्न प्रकार अथवा वर्ग के व्यवसाय करते थे। एक वैदिक ऋषि अंगिरस ने ऋग्वेद में कहा है, ‘मैं कवि हूँ। मेरे पिता वैद्य हैं और मेरी माँ अन्न पीसने वाली है। अत: वर्ण व्यवस्था पारिवारिक सदस्यों के बीच भी अन्त:परिवर्तनीय थी। 
 
    • समाज में कोई भी विशेषाधिकार सम्पन्न वर्ग नहीं था।
    • शूद्रों पर किसी तरह की अपात्रता नहीं लगाई गयी थी। उनके साथ वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध अन्य वर्गों की तरह सामान्य था। विभिन्न वर्गों के साथ सहभोज पर कोई प्रतिबन्ध नहीं था। अस्पृश्यता भी विद्यमान नहीं थी। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक काल में दास प्रथा विद्यमान थी। गायों, रथों, घोड़ों के साथ–साथ दास दासियों के दान देने के उदाहरण प्राप्त होते हैं।
    • धनी वर्ग में सम्भवत: घरेलू दास प्रथा ऐश्वर्य के एक स्रोत के रूप में विद्यमान थी किन्तु आर्थिक उत्पादन में दास प्रथा के प्रयोग की प्रथा प्रचलित न थी।
    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्य मांसाहारी एवं शाकाहारी दोनों प्रकार के भोजन करते थे। भोजन में दूध, घी, दही, मधु, मांस आदि का प्रयोग होता था।
    • नमक का उल्लेख ऋग्वेद में अप्राप्य है। पीने के लिए जल नदियों, निर्घरों (उत्स) तथा कृत्रिम कूपों से प्राप्त किया जाता था।
 
    • सोम भी एक पेय पदार्थ के रूप में प्रसिद्ध था।इस अह्लादक पेय की स्तुति में ऋग्वेद का नौवाँ मण्डल भरा पड़ा है।
    • सोम वस्तुत: एक पौधे का रस था जो हिमालय के मूजवन्त नामक पर्वत पर मिलता था। इसका प्रयोग केवल धार्मिक उत्सवों पर होता था। सुरा भी पेय पदार्थ था परन्तु इसका पान वर्जित था।
    • वस्त्र कपास, ऊन, रेशम एवं चमड़े के बनते थे। आर्य सिलाई से परिचित थे।
    • गन्धार प्रदेश भेंड़ की ऊनों के लिए प्रसिद्ध था। पोशाक के तीन भाग थे–नीवी अर्थात् कमर के नीचे पहना जाने वाला वस्त्र, वास–अर्थात् कमर के ऊपर पहना जाने वाला वस्त्र, अधिवास या अत्क या द्रापि–अर्थात् ऊपर से धारण किया जाने वाला चादर या ओढ़नी।
    • लोग स्वर्णाभूषणों का प्रयोग करते थे। स्त्री और पुरुष दोनों ही पगड़ी का प्रयोग करते थे।
    • ऋग्वेद में नाई को वतृ कहा गया है। आमोद–प्रमोद 6 रथ दौड़, आखेट, युद्ध एवं नृत्य आर्यों के प्रिय मनोविनोद थे। जुआ भी खेला जाता था।
    • वाद्य संगीत में वीणा, दुन्दुभी, करताल, आधार और मृदंग का प्रयोग किया जाता था। 
 

आर्थिक स्थिति 

पशुपालन 

  • पशुपालन ऋग्वैदिक काल में अपेक्षाकृत सर्वाधिक महत्वपूर्ण व्यवसाय था, विशेषकर ऋग्वैदिक काल के प्रारम्भ में। इसके महत्व का पता इस तथ्य से चलता है कि गविष्टि (जिसका अर्थ है ‘गायों की खोज’) युद्धों का पर्याय माना जाता था।
  • गाय को अष्टकर्णी भी कहा गया है। यमुना की तराई गोधन के लिए प्रसिद्ध थी।
  • ऋग्वैदिक काल में गायों का महत्व सर्वाधिक था। गायें विनिमय का माध्यम थीं। पुत्री को दुहिता कहते थे–अर्थात् गाय दुहने वाली। घोड़ा भी अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण पशु होता था।
  • ऋग्वेद में उल्लिखित पशुओं के नाम हैं–गाय, घोड़ा, बैल, भैंस, भेंड़, बकरी (अज), हाथी, ऊँट, कुत्ता, सुअर, गदहा। चारागाह (खिल्य) पर सामुदायिक नियन्त्रण रहता था।

कृषि 

    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्यों को कृषि की अच्छी जानकारी थी।
    • वे बैलों से खींचे जाने वाले हलों से खेती करते थे परन्तु हलों के फाल लोहे के बने नहीं होते थे। |
    • भूमिदान के उदाहरण नहीं प्राप्त होने से ऐसा माना जाता है कि भूमि पर निजी स्वामित्व की शुरुआत नहीं हुई थी।
    • हलों में 6, 8 या 12 तक बैल जोड़े जाते थे।
    • ऋग्वेद में कृषि का उल्लेख 24 बार हुआ है।
    • जोतने, बोने, हंसिया से फसल काटने, दावनी, फटकना, गट्ठा बनाना आदि क्रियाओं से लोग परिचित थे ।
    • कृषि का सर्वाधिक वर्णन ऋग्वेद के चौथे मण्डल में आया है।
 
  • जंगलों को साफ करने के लिए आर्यों ने अग्नि का प्रयोग किया। खाद का भी प्रयोग किया जाता था।
  • नहरों से सिंचाई की जाती थी।
  • आर्यों को अनाज के एक ही किस्म की जानकारी थी, जिसे वे ‘यव‘ कहते थे, जिसका शाब्दिक अर्थ जौ समझा जाता है। 

उद्योग-एवं शिल्प। 

    • ऋग्वैदिक समाज में व्यवसाय आनुवांशिक नहीं हुए थे।
    • पशुपालन एवं कृषि के अतिरिक्त इस काल में अनेक प्रकार के शिल्प एवं उद्योगों का प्रचलन था।
    • ऋग्वेद में उल्लिखित धातुओं में सर्वप्रमुख धातु अयस है। अवश्य यह कांसा या ताँबा रहा होगा।
    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्यों को लोहे का ज्ञान नहीं था। चाँदी का भी प्रयोग संदिग्ध है।
    • ऋग्वेद में जिन प्रमुख व्यवसायियों का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है उनमें प्रमुख हैं –तक्षा (बढ़ई), धातु कर्मी | (धातु का कार्य करने वाले), स्वर्णकार, चर्मकार, वाय (जुलाहे), कुम्भकार (कुलाल) आदि।
    • बढ़ई सम्भवतः शिल्पियों का मुखिया होता था। बुनाई का कार्य मुख्यत: ऊन तक ही सीमित था।
 
  • सिन्धु एवं गान्धार प्रदेश ऊन के लिए प्रसिद्ध थे।
  • ऋग्वेद में कपास या रुई का उल्लेख नहीं प्राप्त होता । तसर शब्द का प्रयोग करघे के लिए हुआ है । वस्त्रों के ऊपर कढ़ाई का काम करने वाली औरतों को पेशस्कारी कहा गया 
  • लोग धातुओं को गलाने, उन्हें पीटकर विविध वस्तुएँ बनाने का कार्य जानते थे। 
  • वैद्य (भिषक), नर्तक–नर्तकी, नाई (वातृ) इत्यादि अन्य सामाजिक वर्ग थे। 

व्यापार

    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्य व्यापार में भी संलग्न रहते थे। व्यापार अधिकतर पणि लोगों के हाथ में था, जो अपनी कृपणता के लिए प्रसिद्ध थे।
    • प्रधानतः व्यापार वस्तु विनियम (Barter system) के माध्यम से होता था। पणि अत्यधिक ब्याज पर ऋण देते थे। उन्हें वेकनाट (सूदखोर) कहा गया है। 
 
  • व्यापार की मुख्य वस्तुएँ कपड़े, तोशक, चादर और चमड़े की वस्तुएँ थीं। स्थल यातायात के प्रमुख साधन रथ और गाड़ी थे। रथ घोड़ों से और गाड़ी बैलों से खींचे जाते थे।
  • अग्नि को पथ का निर्माता (पथिकृत) कहा गया है। जंगल, जंगली जानवर और डाकुओं (तस्कर स्तेन) से भरे रहते थे। 
  • ऋग्वेद में समुद्र शब्द का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है। लोग समुद्री व्यापार में संलग्न थे कि नहीं, यह एक विवादस्पद प्रश्न है।
  • ऋग्वेद में एक स्थान पर भुज्यु की समुद्री यात्रा का वर्णन है जिसमें मार्ग में जलयान के नष्ट हो जाने पर आत्मरक्षा के लिए अश्विनी कुमारों से प्रार्थना की। अश्विनी कुमारों ने उसकी रक्षा के लिए सौ पतवारों वाला एक जहाज भेजा। विनिमय 
  • गाय, मूल्य की प्रामाणिक इकाई थी। खरीद फरोख्त के अधिकतर सौदे प्रायः वस्तु–विनियम के रूप में होते थे। निष्क जो सोने का एक प्रकार का हार होता था, भी लेन–देन का साधन था।
  • बाजार पर आधारित मुद्रा व्यवस्था का प्रचलन अभी नहीं हुआ था। 

ऋग्वैदिक धर्म 

    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्यों के प्रधान देवता प्राकृतिक शक्तियों के व्यक्तित्व में ही अपना उद्गम पाते थे। वैदिक देवता अधिकांशत: प्राकृतिक शक्तियों के मानवीकृत रूप हैं। धार्मिक विकास के तीनों रूप प्राप्त हैं–बहुदेववाद, एकेश्वरवाद एवं एकात्मकवाद ।
 
    • ऋग्वैदिक देवताओं को तीन कोटियों में विभक्त किया जाता है। (1) स्वर्ग के देवता–द्यौस, वरुण, आय, मित्र, सूर्य सविता, पूषन, विष्णु, अदिति, उषा तथा अश्विन्।। (2) अन्तरिक्ष के देवता–इंद्र, रूद्र, मरुत्, वात्, पर्जन्य। (3) पृथ्वी के या पार्थिव देवता–अग्नि, सोम, पृथ्वी।
    • ऋग्वेद का सर्वप्रमुख देवता इन्द्र है। इसे पुरन्दर कहा गया है। यह बादल, एवं वर्षा का देवता था।
    • ऋग्वेद में इन्द्र की स्तुति में 250 सूक्त हैं।
    • दूसरा महत्व का देवता अग्नि है। यह मानव एवं देवताओं के बीच मध्यस्थ की भूमिका निभाता था।
    • तीसरा प्रमुख देवता वरुण था। यह जलनिधि का देवता माना जाता था। इसे ऋतस्य गोपा अर्थात् ऋत् का रक्षक कहा गया है। इसे प्राकृतिक घटनाओं का संयोजक माना गया है तथा यह स्वीकार किया गया है कि विश्व में सब कुछ उसी की इच्छा से होता है | 
    • सोम वनस्पति का देवता था। ऋग्वेद का नौवाँ मण्डल (पूरा) इसके सम्बन्धित है।
    • मरुत् तूफान का प्रतिनिधित्व करते थे। सूर्य की स्तुति प्रसिद्ध गायत्री मन्त्र में सावित्री देवता के रूप में की गयी है।
    • पूषन, मार्गों, चरवाहों और भूले–भटके पशुओं का अभिभावक था है रूद्र एक सदाचार–दुराचार–निरपेक्ष देवता था। 
    • उषस् और अदिति नामक देवियाँ उषाकाल का प्रतिनिधित्व करती थीं। 
 
    • दर्शन का प्रारम्भ ऋग्वेद के दसवें मण्डल से होता है। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक आर्य प्रवृत्तिमार्गी था। उसके जीवन में सन्यास और गृह त्याग का स्थान नहीं था।
    • ऋग्वेद में मन्दिर अथवा मूर्तिपूजा का उल्लेख नहीं है।  
    • देवों की आराधना मुख्यत: स्तुतिपाठ एवं यज्ञाहुति से की जाती थी।
    • यज्ञ में दूध, अन्न, घी, माँस तथा सोम की आहुतियाँ दी जाती थीं।
    • यज्ञ एवं स्तुति सामूहिक रूप से होता था। यज्ञ एवं स्तुति अत्यन्त सरल तरीके से होते थे, इनमें जटिलता नहीं थी। 
    • ऋग्वैदिक ऋषि आत्मवादी था। वह आत्मा में विश्वास करता था। पुनर्जन्म की भावना अभी तक विकसित नहीं हुई थी।
    • ऋग्वेद में अमरता का उल्लेख है। ऋग्वैदिक लोग आध्यात्मिक उन्नति अथवा मोक्ष के लिए देवताओं की आराधना नहीं करते थे।
    • वे इन देवताओं की अर्चना मुख्यतः संतति, पशु, अन्न, धन, स्वास्थ्य आदि के लिए ही करते थे। 
 

उत्तरवैदिक काल

स्त्रोत 

  • उत्तरवैदिक कालीन सभ्यता की जानकारी के स्रोत तीन वैदिक संहिताएँ—यजुर्वेद, सामवेद, अथर्ववेद, ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थ, आरण्यक ग्रन्थ एवं उपनिषद ग्रन्थ हैं।
  • यहाँ यह ध्यातव्य है कि वेदांग वैदिक साहित्य के अन्तर्गत परिगणित नहीं होते हैं।

उत्तरवैदिक आर्यों का भौगोलिक विस्तार 

    • उत्तरवैदिक काल में आर्यों की भौगोलिक सीमा का विस्तार गंगा के पूर्व में हुआ।
    • शतपथ ब्राह्मण में आर्यों के भौगोलिक विस्तार की आख्यायिका के अनुसार-विदेथ माधव ने वैश्वानर अग्नि को मुँह में धारण किया।
    • धृत का नाम लेते ही वह अग्नि पृथ्वी पर गिर गया तथा सब कुछ जलाता हुआ पूर्व की तरफ बढ़ा। पीछे-पीछे विदेथ माधव एवं उनका पुरोहित गौतम राहूगण चला। अकस्मात् वह सदानीरा (गंडक) नदी को नहीं जला पाया।
    • सप्तसैंधव प्रदेश से आगे बढ़ते हुए आर्यों ने सम्पूर्ण गंगा घाटी पर प्रभुत्व जमा लिया। इस प्रक्रिया में कुरु एवं पांचाल ने अत्यधिक प्रसिद्धि प्राप्त की। कुरु की राजधानी आसन्दीवत तथा पांचाल की कांपिल्य थी।
 
    • कुरु लोगों ने सरस्वती और दृषद्वती के अग्रभाग (‘कुरुक्षेत्र,-और दिल्ली एवं मेरठ के जिलों) को अधिकार में कर लिया।’
    • पांचाल लोगों ने वर्तमान उत्तर प्रदेश के अधिकांश भागों (बरेली, बदायूँ और फर्रुखाबाद जिलों) पर अधिकार कर लिया।
    • कुरु जाति कई छोटी-छोटी जातियों के मिलने से बनी थी, जिनमें पुरुओं और भरतों के भी दल थे। पांचाल जाति कृषि जाति से निकली थी जिसका सुंजयों और तुर्वशों का सम्बन्ध था।
    • कुरुवंश में कई प्रतापी राजाओं के नाम अथर्ववेद एवं विभिन्न उत्तरवैदिक कालीन ग्रन्थों में मिलते हैं। अथर्ववेद में प्राप्त एक स्तुति का नायक परीक्षित है। जिसे विश्वजनीन राजा कहा गया है इसका पुत्र जनमेजय था।
    • पांचाल लोगों में भी प्रवाहण, जैवालि एवं ऋषि आरुणि-श्वेतकेतु जैसे प्रतापी नरेशों के नाम मिलते हैं, ये उच्च कोटि के दार्शनिक थे।
 
  • उत्तरवैदिक काल में कुरु, पन्चाल कोशल, काशी तथा विदेह प्रमुख राज्य थे। आर्य सभ्यता का विस्तार उत्तरवैदिक काल में विन्ध्य में दक्षिण में नहीं हो पाया था।

राजनीतिक स्थिति 

    • राज्य संस्था—कबीलाई तत्व अब कमजोर हो गये तथा अनेक छोटे–छोटे कबीले एक–दूसरे में विलीन होकर बड़े क्षेत्रगत जनपदों को जन्म दे रहे थे। उदाहरणार्थ, पूरु एवं भरत मिलकर कुरु और तुर्वस एवं क्रिवि मिलकर पांचाल कहलाए।
    • ऋग्वेद में इस बात के संकेत मिलते हैं कि राज्यों या जनपदों का आधार जाति या कबीला था परन्तु अब क्षेत्रीयता के तत्वों में वृद्धि हो रहा था। प्रारम्भ में प्रत्येक प्रदेश को वहाँ बसे हुए कबीले का नाम दिया गया।
    • आरम्भ में पांचाल एक कबीले का नाम था परन्तु अब उत्तरवैदिक काल में यह एक (क्षेत्रगत) प्रदेश का नाम हो गया। तात्पर्य यह कि अब इस क्षेत्र पर चाहे जिस कबीले का प्रधान या चाहे जो भी राज्य करता, इसका नाम पांचाल ही रहता।
    • विभिन्न प्रदेशों में आर्यों के स्थायी राज्य स्थापित हो गये। राष्ट्र शब्द, जो प्रदेश का सूचक है, पहली बार इसी काल में प्रकट होता है।
    • उत्तरवैदिक काल में मध्य देश के राजा साधारणतः केवल राजा की उपाधि से ही सन्तुष्ट रहते थे। पूर्व के राजा सम्राट, दक्षिण के भोज पश्चिम के स्वरा, और उत्तरी जनपदों के शासक विराट कहलाते थे।
    • उत्तरवैदिक काल के प्रमुख राज्यों में कुरु-पांचाल (दिल्ली-मेरठ और मथुरा के क्षेत्र) पर कुरु लोग हस्तिनापुर से शासन करते थे। गंगा-यमुना के संगम के पूर्व कोशल का राज्य स्थित था। कोसल के पूर्व में काशी राज्य था।
 
    • विदेह नामक एक अन्य राज्य था जिसके राजा जनक कहलाते थे। गंगा के दक्षिणी भाग में विदेह के दक्षिण में मगध राज्य था।
    • राज्य के आकार में वृद्धि के साथ ही साथ राजा के शक्ति और अधिकार में वृद्धि हुई।
 
    • अब राजा अपनी सारी प्रजा का स्वतंत्र स्वामी होने का दावा करता था।
    • शासन पद्धति राजतन्त्रात्मक थी। राजा का पदं वंशानुगत होता था। यद्यपि जनता द्वारा राजा के चुनाव के उदाहरण भी प्राप्त होते हैं।
 
  • राजा अब केवल जन या कबीले का रक्षक या नेता न होकर एक विस्तृत भाग का एकछत्र शासक होता था।

राज पद की उत्पत्ति के सिद्धान्त

उत्तरवैदिक साहित्य में राज्य एवं राजा के प्रादुर्भाव के विषय में अनेक सिद्धान्त मिलते हैं–राजा के पद के जन्म के बारे में ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण से सर्वप्रथम जानकारी मिलती है।

  • (1) सैनिक आवश्यकता का सिद्धान्त–ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण का उल्लेख है कि एक बार देवासुर–संग्राम हुआ। बार–बार पराजित होने के पश्चात सब इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुँचे कि राजाविहीन होने के कारण ही हमारी पराजय होती है। अतः उन्होंने सोम को अपना राजा बनाया और पुन: युद्ध किया। इस बार उनकी विजय हुई। अतः इससे ज्ञात होता है कि राजा का प्रादुर्भाव सैनिक आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति के लिए हुआ था। तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण में भी इसी मत से सम्बन्धित एक उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है, इसमें यह कहा गया है कि समस्त देवताओं ने मिलकर इन्द्र को राजा बनाने का निश्चय किया, क्योंकि वह सबसे अधिक सबल और प्रतिभाशाली देवता था। |
  • (2) समझौते का सिद्धान्त–शतपथ ब्राह्मण में एक उल्लेख के अनुसार जब कभी अनावृष्टि काल होता है तो सबल निर्बल का उत्पीड़न करते हैं। इस दुर्वह परिस्थिति को दूर करने के लिए समाज ने अपने सबसे सबल और सुयोग्य सदस्य को राजा बनाया था और समझौते के अनुसार अपने असीम अधिकारों को राजा के प्रति समर्पित कर दिया। 
  • (3) दैवी सिद्धान्त–उत्तरवैदिक काल में राजा को दैव पद भी दिया जाने लगा था। राजा के शक्ति और अधिकार विभिन्न प्रकार के अनुष्ठानों ने राजा की शक्ति को बढ़ाया। कई तरह के लंबे और राजकीय यज्ञानुष्ठान प्रचलित हो गये। राजाओं का राज्याभिषेक होता था। राज्याभिषेक के समय राजा राजसूय यज्ञ करता था। यह यज्ञ सम्राट का पद प्राप्त करने के लिए किया जाता था, तथा इससे यह माना जाता था कि इन यज्ञों से राजाओं को दिव्य शक्ति प्राप्त होती है ।राजसूय यज्ञ में रलिन नामक अधिकारियों के घरों में देवताओं को. बलि दी जाती थी। है अश्वमेध यज्ञ तीन दिनों तक चलने वाला यज्ञ होता था। समझा जाता था कि अश्वमेध–अनुष्ठान से विजय और सम्प्रभुता की प्राप्ति होती है। अश्वमेध यज्ञ में घोड़ा प्रयुक्त होता था। वाजपेय यज्ञ में, जो सत्रह दिनों तक चलता था, राजा की अपने सगोत्रीय बन्धुओं के साथ रथ की दौड़ होती थी। 

राजा देवता का प्रतीक समझा जाता था। अथर्ववेद में राजा परीक्षित को ‘मृत्युलोक का देवता‘ कहा गया है। राजा के प्रधानकार्य सैनिक और न्याय सम्बन्धी होते थे। वह अपनी प्रजा और कानूनों का रक्षक तथा शत्रुओं का संहारक था। राजा स्वयं दण्ड से मुक्त था परन्तु वह राजदण्ड का उपयोग करता था। सिद्धान्ततः राजा निरंकुश होता था परन्तु राज्य की स्वेच्छाचारिता कई प्रकार से मर्यादित रहती थी। उदाहरणार्थ

    • (1) राजा के वरण में जनता की सहमति की उपेक्षा नहीं हो सकती थी।
 
  • (2) अभिषेक के समय राज्य के स्वायत्त अधिकारों पर लगायी गयी मर्यादाओं का निर्वाह करना राजा का कर्तव्य होता था। 
  • (3) राजा को राजकार्य के लिए मंत्रिपरिषद पर निर्भर रहना पड़ता था। 
  • (4) सभा और समिति नामक दो संस्थायें राजा के निरंकुश होने पर रोक लगाती थीं। 
  • (5) राजा की निरंकुशता पर सबसे बड़ा अंकुश धर्म का होता था। अथर्ववेद के कुछ सूक्तों से पता चलता है कि राजा जनता की भक्ति और समर्थन प्राप्त करने के लिए लालायित रहता था। कुछ मन्त्रों से पता चलता है कि अन्यायी राजाओं को प्रजा दण्ड दे सकती थी तथा उन्हें राज्य से बहिष्कृत कर सकती थी। कुरुवंशीय परीक्षित जनमेजय तथा पांचाल वंश के राजाओं प्रवाहन, जैवालि अरुणि एवं श्वेतकेतु के समृद्धि के बारे में जानकारी अथर्ववेद में मिलती है।

राजा का निर्वाचन 

    • अनेक वैदिक साक्ष्यों से हमें राजा के निर्वाचन की सूचना प्राप्त होती है। अथर्ववेद में एक स्थान पर राजा के निर्वाचन की सूचना प्राप्त होती है।
    • राज्याभिषेक के अवसरों पर राजा रत्नियों के घर जाता था।
    • शतपथ ब्राह्मण में रत्नियों की संख्या 11 दी गई है–(1) सेनानी (2) पुरोहित (3) युवराज (4) महिषी (5) सूत (6) ग्रामिणी (7) क्षत्ता (8) संग्रहीता (कोषाध्यक्ष) (9) भागद्ध (कर संग्रहकर्ता) (10) अक्षवाप (पासे के खेल में राजा का सहयोगी) (11) पालागल (राजा का मित्र और विदूषक)।
 
  • राज्याभिषेक में 17 प्रकार के जलों से राजा का अभिषेक किया जाता था।

प्रशासनिक संस्थायें

  • उत्तरवैदिक काल में जन परिषदों, सभा, समिति, विदथ का महत्व कम हो गया।
  • राजा की शक्ति बढ़ने के साथ ही साथ इनके अधिकारों में काफी गिरावट आयी। 
  • विदथ पूर्णतया लुप्त हो गये थे। सभा–समिति का अस्तित्व था परन्तु या तो इनके पास कोई अधिकार शेष नहीं था या इन पर सम्पत्तिशाली एवं धनी लोगों का अधिकार हो गया था।
  • स्त्रियाँ अब सभा समिति में भाग नहीं ले पाती थीं।

पदाधिकारी 

    • पुरोहित, सेनानी एवं ग्रामिणी के अलावा उत्तरवैदिक कालीन ग्रन्थों में हमें संग्रहितृ (कोषाध्यक्ष), भागदुध (कर संग्रह करने वाला), सूत (राजकीय चारण, कवि या रथ वाहक), क्षतु, अक्षवाप (जुए का निरीक्षक) गोविकर्तन (आखेट में राजा का साथी) पालागल जैसे कर्मचारियों का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है। 
    • सचिव नामक उपाधि का उल्लेख भी मिलता है, जो आगे चलकर मन्त्रियों के लिए प्रयुक्त हुई है। 
 
  • उत्तरवैदिक काल के अन्त तक में बलि और शुल्क के रूप में नियमित रूप से कर देना लगभग अनिवार्य बनता जा रहा। 
  • राजा न्याय का सर्वोच्च अधिकारी होता था। अपराध सम्बन्धी मुकदमों में व्यक्तिगत प्रतिशोध का स्थान था। न्याय में दैवी न्याय का व्यवहार भी होता था।
  • निम्न स्तर पर प्रशासन एवं न्यायकार्य ग्राम पंचायतों के जिम्मे था, जो स्थानीय झगड़ों का फैसला करती थी। 

सामाजिक स्थिति 

  • उत्तरवैदिक काल में सामाजिक व्यवस्था का आधार वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्था ही था, यद्यपि वर्ण व्यवस्था में कठोरता आने लगी थी।
  • समाज में चार वर्ण–ब्राह्मण, राजन्य, वैश्य और शूद्र थे। ब्राह्मण के लिए ऐहि, क्षत्रिय के लिए आगच्छ, वैश्य के लिए आद्रव तथा शूद्र के लिए आधव शब्द प्रयुक्त होते थे। ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय तथा वैश्य इन तीनों को द्विज कहा जाता था। ये उपनयन संस्कार के अधिकारी थे।
  • चौथा वर्ण (शूद्र) उपनयन संस्कार का अधिकारी नहीं था और यहीं से शूद्रों को अपात्र या आधारहीन मानने की प्रक्रिया शुरू हो गई। 

आर्थिक स्थिति 

    • उत्तरवैदिक काल में कृषि आर्यों का मुख्य पेशा हो गया। लोहे के उपकरणों के प्रयोग से कृषि क्षेत्र में क्रान्ति आ गई।
 
    • यजुर्वेद में लोहे के लिए श्याम अयस एवं कृष्ण अयस शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है।
    • शतपथ ब्राह्मण में कृषि की चार क्रियाओं–जुताई, बुआई, कटाई और मड़ाई का उल्लेख हुआ है।
    • पशुपालन गौण पेशा हो गया। अथर्ववेद में सिंचाई के साधन के रूप में वर्णाकूप एवं नहर (कुल्या) का उल्लेख मिलता है।
    • हल की नाली को सीता कहा जाता था।
    • अथर्ववेद के विवरण के अनुसार सर्वप्रथम पृथ्वीवेन ने हल और कृषि को जन्म दिया।
    • इस काल की मुख्य फसल धान और गेहूँ हो गई।
    • यजुर्वेद में ब्रीहि (धान), यव (जौ), माण (उड़द) मुद्ग (मूंग), गोधूम (गेहूँ), मसूर आदि अनाजों का वर्णन मिलता है। अथर्ववेद में सर्वप्रथम नहरों का उल्लेख हुआ है।
 
    • इस काल में हाथी को पालतू बनाए जाने के साक्ष्य प्राप्त होने लगते हैं।
    • जिसके लिए हस्ति या वारण शब्द मिलता है। वृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् में श्रेष्ठिन शब्द तथा ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण में श्रेष्ठ्य शब्द से व्यापारियों की श्रेणी का अनुमान लगाया जाता है।
    • तैत्तरीय संहिता में ऋण के लिए कुसीद शब्द मिलता है। शतपथ ब्राह्मण में महाजनी प्रथा का पहली बार जिक्र हुआ है तथा सूदखोर को कुसीदिन कहा गया है।
    • निष्क, शतमान, पाद, कृष्णल आदि माप की विभिन्न इकाइयाँ थीं। द्रोण अनाज मापने के लिए प्रयुक्त किए जाते थे। के उत्तरवैदिक काल के लोग चार प्रकार के मृद्भाण्डों से परिचित थे—काला व लाल मृभाण्ड, काले पॉलिशदार मृद्भाण्ड, चित्रित धूसर मृद्भाण्ड और लाल मृद्भाण्ड।
    • उत्तरवैदिक आर्यों को समुद्र का ज्ञान हो गया था। इस काल के साहित्य में पश्चिमी और पूर्वी दोनों प्रकार के समुद्रों का वर्णन है। वैदिक ग्रन्थों में समुद्र यात्रा की भी चर्चा है, जिससे वाणिज्य एवं व्यापार का संकेत मिलता है।
 
  • सिक्कों का अभी नियमित प्रचलन नहीं हुआ था। उत्तरवैदिक ग्रन्थों में कपास का उल्लेख नहीं हुआ है, बल्कि ऊनी (ऊन) शब्द का प्रयोग कई बार आया हैं। बुनाई का काम प्रायः स्त्रियाँ करती थीं।
  • कढ़ाई करने वाली स्त्रियों को पेशस्करी कहा जाता था। तैतरीय अरण्यक में पहली बार नगर की चर्चा हुई हैं। उत्तरवैदिक काल के अन्त में हम केवल नगरों का आभास पाते हैं।
  • हस्तिनापुर और कौशाम्बी प्रारम्भिक नगर थे, जिन्हें आद्य नगरीय स्थल (Proto–Urbon Site) कहा जा सकता है। 

धार्मिक स्थिति 

    • उत्तरवैदिक आर्यों के धार्मिक जीवन में मुख्यत: तीन परिवर्तन दृष्टिगोचर होते हैं–देवताओं की महत्ता में परिवर्तन, अराधना की रीति में परिवर्तन तथा धार्मिक उद्देश्यों में परिवर्तन। * उत्तरवैदिक काल में इन्द्र के स्थान पर सृजन के देवता ।
    • प्रजापति को सर्वोच्च स्थान मिला। रूद्र और विष्णु दो अन्य प्रमुख देवता इस काल के माने जाते हैं। वरुण मात्र जल के देवता माने जाने लगे, जबकि पूषन अब शूद्रों के देवता हो गए।
 
    • इस काल में प्रत्येक वेद के अपने पुरोहित हो गए। ऋग्वेद का पुरोहित होता, सामवेद का उद्गाता, यजुर्वेद का अध्वर्यु एवं अथर्ववेद का ब्रह्मा कहलाता था। उत्तरवैदिक काल में अनेक प्रकार के यज्ञ प्रचलित थे, जिनमें सोमयज्ञ या अग्निष्टोम यज्ञ, अश्वमेघ यज्ञ, वाजपेय यज्ञ एवं राजसूय यज्ञ महत्त्वपूर्ण थे।
 
  • मृत्यु की चर्चा सर्वप्रथम शतपथ ब्राह्मण तथा मोक्ष की चर्चा सर्वप्रथम उपनिषद् में मिलती है। पुनर्जन्म की अवधारणा वृहदराण्यक उपनिषद् में मिलती है।
  • निष्काम कर्म के सिद्धान्त का प्रतिपादन सर्वप्रथम ईशोपनिषद् में किया गया है।
  • प्रमुख यज्ञ अग्निहोतृ यज्ञ पापों के क्षय और स्वर्ग की ओर ले जाने वाले नाव के रूप में वर्णित सोत्रामणि यज्ञ यज्ञ में पशु एवं सुरा की आहुति, पुरुषमेघ यज्ञ पुरुषों की बलि, सर्वाधिक 25 यूपों (यज्ञ स्तम्भ) का निर्माण, अश्वमेध यज्ञ सर्वाधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण यज्ञ, राजा द्वारा साम्राज्य की सीमा में वृद्धि के लिए, सांडों तथा घोड़ों की बलि।। राजसूय यज्ञ राजा के राज्याभिषेक से सम्बन्धित वाजपेय यज्ञ राजा द्वारा अपनी शक्ति के प्रदर्शन के लिए, रथदौड़ का आयोजन।

ऋगवेद में उल्लिखित शब्द (Words written in RigVeda)

शब्द

संख्या

इन्द्र250 बार
अग्नि200
वरुण30
जन275
विश171
पिता335
माता234
वर्ण23
ग्राम13
ब्राह्मण15
क्षत्रिय9
वैश्य1
शूद्र1
राष्ट्र10
समा8
समिति9
विदथ122
गंगा1
यमुना3
राजा1
सोम देवता144
कृषि24
गण46
विष्णु100
रूद्र3
बृहस्पति11
पृथ्वी1

ऋग्वेद के मंडल और उनके रचयिता (Parts of Rigveda and their Writer)

मंडल

रचयिता

द्वितीय मंडलगृत्समद
तृतीय मंडलविश्वामित्र
चतुर्थ मंडलवामदेव
पांचवा मंडलआत्रि
छठा मंडलभारद्वाज
सातवां मंडलवशिष्ठ
आठवां मंडलकणव व अंगीरा

वैदिक कालीन सूत्र साहित्य 

कल्पसूत्रविधि एवं नियमों का प्रतिपादन
श्रौतसूत्रयज्ञ से संबंधित विस्तृत विधि-विधानों की व्याख्या |
शुल्बसूत्रयज्ञ स्थल तथा अग्नि वेदी के निर्माण तथा माप से संबंधित नियम है इसमें भारतीय ज्यामिति का प्रारंभिक रूप दिखाई देता है |
धर्मसूत्रसामाजिक-धार्मिक कानून तथा आचार संहिता है |
ग्रह सूत्रमनुष्य के लौकिक एवं पारलौकिक कर्तव्य |

वैदिक काल में होने वाले सोलह संस्कार (Sixteen Sanskar in Vedic Period)

अन्नप्राशन संस्कारइसमें  शिशु को छठे माह में अन्न खिलाया जाता है |
चूड़ाकर्म संस्कारशिशु के तीसरे से आठवें वर्ष के बीच कभी भी मुंडन कराया जाता था |
कर्णभेद संस्काररोगों से बचने हेतु आभूषण धारण करने के उद्देश्य से किया जाता था |
विद्यारंभ संस्कार5वे वर्ष में बच्चों को अक्षर ज्ञान कराया जाता था |
उपनयन संस्कारइस संस्कार के पश्चात बालक द्विज हो जाता था | इस संस्कार के बाद बच्चे को संयमी जीवन व्यतीत करना पड़ता था | बच्चा इसके बाद  शिक्षा ग्रहण करने के योग्य हो जाता था |
वेदारंभ संस्कारवेद अध्ययन करने के लिए किया जाने वाला संस्कार
केशांत संस्कार16 वर्ष हो जाने पर प्रथम बार बाल कटाना |
गर्भाधान संस्कारसंतान उत्पन्न करने हेतु पुरुष एवं स्त्री द्वारा की जाने वाली क्रिया |
पुंसवन संस्कारप्राप्ति के लिए मंत्त्रोच्चारण
सीमानतोनयन संस्कारगर्भवती स्त्री के गर्भ की रक्षा हेतु किए जाने वाला संस्कार |
जातकर्म संस्कारबच्चे के जन्म के पश्चात पिता अपने शिशु को ध्रत या मधु चटाता था बच्चे की दीर्घायु के लिए प्रार्थना की जाती थी |
नामकरण संस्कारशिशु का नाम रखना |
निष्क्रमण संस्कारबच्चे के घर से पहली बार निकलने के अवसर पर किया जाता था |
समावर्तन संस्कारविद्याध्ययन समाप्त कर घर लौटने पर किया जाता था यह ब्रह्मचर्य आश्रम की समाप्ति का सूचक था |
विवाह संस्कारवर वधु के परिणय सूत्र में बंधने के समय किया जाने वाला संस्कार |
अंत्येष्टि संस्कारनिधन के बाद होने वाला संस्कार |

ऋग्वैदिक कालीन प्रमुख नदियां 

प्राचीन नाम

आधुनिक नाम

कुभाकाबुल
सुवस्तुस्वात
क्रूमुकुर्रम
गोमतीगोमल
वितस्ताझेलम
अस्किनीचेनाव
पुरूष्णीरावी
विपाशाव्यास
शतुद्रीसतलज
सदानीरागंडक
दृषद्वतीघग्धर
सुषोमासोहन
मरुदवृद्धामरूबर्मन

वैदिक कालीन देवता (Vedic Period Gods)

मरुतआंधी तूफान के देवता
पर्जन्यवर्षा के देवता
सरस्वतीनदी देवी (बाद में विद्या की देवी)
पूषनपशुओं के देवता (उत्तर वैदिक काल में शूद्रों के देवता)
अरण्यानीजंगल की देवी
यममृत्यु के देवता
मित्रशपथ एवं प्रतिज्ञा के देवता
आश्विनचिकित्सा के देवता
सूर्यजीवन देने वाला (भुवन चक्षु)
त्वष्क्षाधातुओं के देवता
आर्षविवाह और संधि के देवता
विवस्तानदेवताओं जनक
सोमवनस्पति के देवता
 
 
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